Last reviewed: 21 Sep 2021
Last updated: 01 Sep 2021

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Cervical cancer
  • Miscarriage
  • Cervical polyp
  • Ectropion
  • Iatrogenic

Uncommon

  • Endometrial cancer
  • Ovarian cancer
  • Vaginal cancer
  • Ectopic pregnancy
  • Placental abruption
  • Placenta previa
  • Cervicitis
  • Vaginitis
  • Sexual abuse in children
  • Neonatal uterine bleeding
  • Precocious puberty
  • Genital trauma
  • Vaginal foreign body
  • Condylomata accuminata

Contributors

Authors

Intisar Elnahhas, MD
Intisar Elnahhas

Research Associate

Laboratory Director

San Antonio Reproductive Associates

San Antonio

TX

Disclosures

IE declares that she has no competing interests.

Mohamed Mitwally, MD, HCLD, FACOG
Mohamed Mitwally

Medical Director

Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility

Baptist Medical Center

San Antonio Reproductive Associates

San Antonio

TX

Disclosures

The author owns a patent on the use of aromatase inhibitors for endometrial thinning before hysteroscopic surgery. The patent is licensed to Meditrina Company.

Peer reviewers

Sana Salih, MD

Assistant Professor

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology

University of Wisconsin

Madison

WI

Disclosures

SS declares that she has no competing interests.

Austin Ugwumadu, PhD, FRCOG

Consultant/Senior Lecturer in Obstetrics and Gynaecology

St George's Hospital

London

UK

Disclosures

AU declares that he has no competing interests.

M. Jonathon Solnik, MD, FACOG, FACS

Associate Professor of Obstetrics & Gynaecology

Head of Gynaecology & Minimally Invasive Surgery

Faculty of Medicine at the University of Toronto

Mt. Sinai Hospital

Toronto

Canada

Disclosures

JS consults for Medtronic, Hologic, and Olympus. He is on the advisory board for Abbvie.

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