Last reviewed: May 2019
Last updated: January  2018



History and exam

Other diagnostic factors

  • abdominal pain
  • vomiting
  • loss of appetite
  • low-grade fever
  • loss of weight
  • RUQ abdominal pain
  • jaundice
  • nasal discharge and facial pain
  • cough and dyspnea

Risk factors

  • contact with farm animals, especially calves and lambs
  • international travel
  • age: 3 years or younger
  • immune deficiency: T-cell-mediated
  • swimming and recreational water sports
  • drinking unfiltered water
  • toileting or changing diapers of young children

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • stool microscopy
  • Cryptosporidium antigen detection
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • ultrasound scan of the biliary tract
  • CT scan of the biliary tract
  • endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
  • PCR for Cryptosporidium DNA
  • PCR for Cryptosporidium species identification
Full details

Treatment algorithm


Authors VIEW ALL

Consultant Clinical Scientist/Honorary Professor

Director of UK Cryptosporidium Reference Unit

Public Health Wales Microbiology

Singleton Hospital




RMC has been involved with the following boards: WHO Water Quality and Health Technical Advisory Group; Europe ISO/TC34/SC9/WG6 “Methods for Cyptosporidium and Giardia in food”; Public Health England Gastro-Intestinal Programme Board; Wales Microbiology Standing Specialist Advisory Group. RMC’s institution has received payments for grants and contract research. RMC has received payments for lectures to Environmental Health Officers and royalties for the Elsevier for Microbiology of Waterborne Diseases book. RMC is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph.

Clinical Associate Professor

College of Medicine

Swansea University




APD is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Assistant Professor

Infectious Diseases

University of Vermont College of Medicine




BK declares that she has no competing interests.


Stanford Health Promotion Network

Stanford School of Medicine

Palo Alto



YM declares that he has no competing interests.

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