Most cases of Escherichia coli infection are foodborne.
Enterotoxigenic E coli (ETEC) is the most common cause of traveler's diarrhea.
Diagnosis is made based on stool culture, with serotyping for greater specificity.
Treatment is supportive, with rehydration and correction of electrolyte imbalance.
Use of antibiotics is controversial and in most cases not necessary, except possibly in traveler's diarrhea.
In the US, the most common serotype of enterohemorrhagic E coli (EHEC) is O157:H7.
Ten percent of patients with E coli O157:H7 infection develop hemolytic uremic syndrome.
Escherichia coli is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium. It is a commensal organism that colonizes the gastrointestinal tract within a few hours of birth. E coli becomes pathogenic by acquiring virulence factors or genetic mutations, leading to a broad range of intestinal and extra-intestinal disease. Infection by pathogenic strains occurs through ingestion, usually via contaminated food or water.
Professor of Medicine
Rosalind Franklin University Medical School
Associate Director for Research
Internal Medicine Residency
Advocate Lutheran General Hospital
Adjunct Professor of Pediatric Gastroenterology
University of Miami Miller Medical School
EDE is a consultant for Pediatric Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Dr Eli D. Ehrenpreis would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Alexandra Kent and Professor Satis Keshav, the previous contributors to this topic.
St George’s Hospital
AP declares that he has no competing interests.
Research Fellow and Medical Microbiologist
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
Department of Microbiology
FC declares that she has no competing interests.
Voluntary Assistant Professor of Medicine
Digestive Health & Nutrition Center of Ashland
HEM declares that he has no competing interests.
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