Last reviewed:September 2019
Last updated:February  2019

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Essential hypertension
  • Renal artery stenosis
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Obstructive uropathy
  • Obstructive sleep apnea

Uncommon

  • Coarctation of aorta
  • Preeclampsia
  • Glomerulonephritis
  • Nephrotic syndrome
  • Polycystic kidney disease
  • Pheochromocytoma
  • Hyperaldosteronism
  • Cushing disease/syndrome
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Hyperparathyroidism
  • Chronic alcohol excess
  • Medication
  • Illicit drug use
  • "White-coat hypertension"

Contributors

Senior Consultant Cardiologist

Sultan Qaboos University Hospital

Muscat

Oman

Disclosures

SN is an author of a number of references cited in this topic.

Price-Evans Professor of Cardiovascular Medicine

University of Liverpool

Senior Investigator

National Institute for Health Research

UK

Distinguished Professor

Faculty of Medicine

Aalborg University

Denmark

Adjunct Professor

Yonsei University

Seoul

South Korea

Disclosures

GYHL is a consultant for Bayer/Janssen, BMS/Pfizer, Biotronik, Medtronic, Boehringer Ingelheim, Novartis, Verseon, and Daiichi-Sankyo; he is also a speaker for Bayer, BMS/Pfizer, Medtronic, Boehringer Ingelheim, and Daiichi-Sankyo. GYHL is an author of a number of references cited in this topic.

Peer reviewersVIEW ALL

Professor of Epidemiology

Head of the Section of Epidemiology & Biostatistics

School of Population Health

University of Auckland

Auckland

New Zealand

Disclosures

RJ declares that he has no competing interests.

Professor of Medicine

David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA

Los Angeles

CA

Disclosures

AW declares that he has no competing interests. Unfortunately we have since been made aware that Professor Wilkinson is deceased.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology

St Mary’s Hospital

Imperial College

London

UK

Disclosures

MS declares that he has no competing interests.

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