Last reviewed: September 2018
Last updated: October  2018

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • visual field loss
  • FHx idiopathic intracranial hypertension

Other diagnostic factors

  • headache
  • transient visual obscurations
  • pulse-synchronous tinnitus
  • photophobia
  • retrobulbar pain
  • optical disk swelling
  • decreased visual acuity
  • ocular motility defects
  • diplopia
  • relative afferent papillary defect (RAPD)

Risk factors

  • female gender
  • weight gain
  • sleep apnea
  • certain medication use
  • associated causal diseases

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • visual field testing (perimetry)
  • optic disk photographs
  • MRI of brain with or without contrast
  • lumbar puncture at spinal L3/L4
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • magnetic resonance venogram of head
Full details

Emerging tests

  • optical coherence tomography (OCT)
Full details

Treatment algorithm

ACUTE

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Professor

Department of Neurology and Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences

University of Iowa Hospitals & Clinics and Iowa City VA Health Care System

Iowa City

IA

Disclosures

MW declares that he has no competing interests.

Chief Resident in Ophthalmology

Nassau University Medical Center

East Meadow

New York

NY

Disclosures

MM declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Consultant in Neurology and Neuro-Ophthalmology

Mayo Clinic Florida

Jacksonville

FL

Disclosures

PWB declares that he has no competing interests.

Consultant Neuro-ophthalmologist

Birmingham Neuro-ophthalmology Unit

University Hospital Birmingham

Birmingham

UK

Disclosures

TDM declares that he has no competing interests.

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