Last reviewed:October 2019
Last updated:January  2019

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Acute/chronic bronchitis
  • Pulmonary tuberculosis
  • Lung abscess
  • Pneumonia
  • Primary lung cancer
  • Lung metastasis
  • Anticoagulants, thrombolytic agents
  • Toxic inhalation
  • Bronchiectasis
  • Pulmonary thromboembolism
  • Mitral valve stenosis
  • Left ventricular failure
  • Coagulopathy
  • Thrombocytopenia
  • Disseminated intravascular coagulation

Uncommon

  • Aspergilloma
  • Endobronchial carcinoid
  • Aspiration of foreign body
  • Aspiration of gastric contents
  • Broncholithiasis
  • Tracheoesophageal fistula
  • Bronchial telangiectasia
  • Airway trauma
  • Dieulafoy disease
  • Thoracic endometriosis
  • Pulmonary artery aneurysm
  • Fat embolism
  • Tumor thromboembolism
  • Arteriovenous malformation
  • Pulmonary hemorrhagic syndromes
  • Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Wegener granulomatosis)
  • Systemic vasculitis
  • Congenital heart disease
  • Tricuspid endocarditis
  • Bronchogenic cyst
  • Factitious hemoptysis

Contributors

Professor of Medicine

Interventional Pulmonology

David Geffen School of Medicine

University of California

Los Angeles

CA

Disclosures

IS has received past support from Cook Medical for tracheostomy education and workshops.

Associate Professor of Medicine

David Geffen School of Medicine

University of California

Los Angeles

CA

Disclosures

JMB declares that she has no competing interests.

Dr Irawan Susanto and Dr Joanne Bando would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Erik Folch and Professor James K. Stoller, previous contributors to this topic.

Peer reviewersVIEW ALL

Professor

Box Hill Hospital and Monash University

Victoria

Australia

Disclosures

FT declares that he has no competing interests.

Interventional Radiologist and Pulmonologist

Full Professor and Chief of Interventional Radiology

University of Zaragoza

Zaragoza

Spain

Disclosures

MAdG has been reimbursed by Cook Medical and Abbott Vascular for attending several conferences; by Cook Medical and UCB Pharma for speaking; by Cook Medical and St Jude Medical for running educational programs.

Staff Physician

Division of Pulmonary & Critical Care Medicine

US Department of Veterans Affairs

Palo Alto Health Care System

Clinical Assistant Professor of Medicine

Stanford University School of Medicine

Palo Alto

CA

Disclosures

HSP declares that he has no competing interests.

Director

Medical Intensive Care Unit

West Los Angeles VA Healthcare Center

Los Angeles

CA

Disclosures

GWSH declares that he has no competing interests.

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