Last reviewed: June 2018
Last updated: June  2018

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • age >50 years
  • male gender
  • geographic location: sub-Saharan Africa or the Mediterranean
  • HIV infection
  • HHV-8 infection
  • immunosuppression
  • skin lesion
  • oral lesion
  • lymphadenopathy
  • lymphedema

Other diagnostic factors

  • weight loss
  • abdominal pain
  • GI bleeding
  • diarrhea
  • dyspnea
  • hemoptysis
  • chest pain
  • fever

Risk factors

  • male gender
  • HIV infection
  • drug abuse
  • immunosuppression therapy
  • transplantation
  • human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) infection
  • central African ethnicity (Uganda, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Swaziland)
  • Jewish ethnicity
  • Mediterranean ethnicity
  • age <5 years or >50 years

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • HIV test
  • skin/mucosal biopsy
  • lymph node biopsy
  • fecal occult blood
  • CXR
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • CT scan
  • MRI
  • bronchoscopy
  • GI endoscopy
  • PET scan
  • CBC
  • renal function tests
  • LFTs
Full details

Emerging tests

  • human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) viremia and serology
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Attending Hematologist and Oncologist

Virginia Mason Clinical Professor of Medicine

Division of Hematology and Oncology

University of Washington

Seattle

WA

Disclosures

DA is the author of articles cited in this topic.

Dr David Aboulafia would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Liron Pantanowitz and Dr Bruce J. Dezube, previous contributors to this topic.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Consultant Medical Oncologist/Senior Lecturer

Department of Medical Oncology

Imperial College/Imperial Healthcare NHS Trust

Charing Cross Hospital

London

UK

Disclosures

JS declares that he has no competing interests.

Physician

Department of Dermatology

Erasme University Hospital

Brussels

Belgium

Disclosures

TS declares that he has no competing interests.

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