Bladder cancer

Last reviewed: 28 Aug 2022
Last updated: 26 Jul 2022

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • haematuria (gross or microscopic)
  • dysuria
More key diagnostic factors

Other diagnostic factors

  • urinary frequency
Other diagnostic factors

Risk factors

  • tobacco exposure
  • exposure to chemical carcinogens
  • age >65 years
  • pelvic radiation
  • systemic chemotherapy
  • diabetes mellitus
  • Schistosoma infection
  • male sex
  • chronic bladder inflammation
  • genetic predisposition
More risk factors

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • urinalysis
More 1st investigations to order

Investigations to consider

  • urine cytology
  • cystoscopy
  • renal and bladder ultrasound
  • CT urogram
  • MR urogram
  • intravenous urogram
  • FBC
  • chemistry profile (including alkaline phosphatase)
  • CXR
  • CT abdomen and pelvis
  • MRI abdomen and pelvis
  • bone scan
  • urinary biomarkers
More investigations to consider

Treatment algorithm

ACUTE

non-muscle-invasive tumours

locally invasive tumours

metastatic disease

Contributors

Authors

Donald Lamm, MD, FACS

Director

BCG Oncology

Clinical Professor

University of Arizona

Phoenix

AZ

Disclosures

DL is an author of a number of references cited in this topic.

Acknowledgements

Dr Donald Lamm would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Mary Heeley, the previous contributor to this topic.

Disclosures

MH declares that she has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

Junaid Masood, MBBS, FRCS (Eng), MSc (Urol), FRCS (Urol)

Consultant Urological Surgeon

Homerton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust

London

UK

Disclosures

JM declares that he has no competing interests.

Hugh Mostafid, MD

Consultant Urologist

North Hampshire Hospital

Basingstoke

UK

Disclosures

HM has received honoraria from GE Healthcare and Kyowa Kirin UK.

Thomas Guzzo, MD

Clinical Instructor of Urology

The James Buchanan Brady Urologic Institute

The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions

Baltimore

MD

Disclosures

TG declares that he has no competing interests.

Amir Kaisary, MD, MA, ChM, FRCS

Consultant Urological Surgeon

Honorary Senior Lecturer

Department of Urology

The Royal Free & University College Medical School

London

UK

Disclosures

AK declares that he has no competing interests.

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  • Guidelines

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