Last reviewed:September 2019
Last updated:October  2019

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • hyphaema
  • ecchymosis
  • severe eye pain
  • blurred vision
  • corneal abrasions
  • corneal oedema
  • sub-conjunctival haemorrhages
  • conjunctival lacerations
  • punctate epithelial erosions
  • loss of sight

Other diagnostic factors

  • excessive lacrimation
  • conjunctival chemosis
  • conjunctival hyperaemia
  • corneal epithelial defect/abrasion
  • open globe injury
  • eyelid burns
  • photophobia
  • diplopia
  • miosis
  • corneal stromal clouding
  • iridodialysis
  • conjunctival foreign body
  • corneal foreign body
  • Descemet's membrane tears
  • corneoscleral lacerations
  • persistent headache
  • loss of consciousness
  • blood or clear fluid from ears or nose
  • inability to move eye(s)

Risk factors

  • age 18-45 years
  • male sex
  • no protective eyewear
  • workplace injuries
  • fireworks
  • exposure to ultraviolet light
  • previous eye surgery

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • plain x-ray
  • B-scan ultrasonography
  • ultrasound biomicroscopy
  • MRI scan of head
  • optical coherence tomography
  • fluorescein angiography
  • fundus autofluorescence
  • urine drug screen
  • sickle cell trait screen
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Assistant Professor of Ophthalmology

Residency Program Director

Director, Eye Trauma Center 

Wilmer Eye Institute

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

Baltimore

MD

Disclosures

FW declares that she has no competing interests.

Dr Fasika Woreta wishes to gratefully acknowledge Dr Ron Adelman and Dr Elena Raluca Raducu, previous contributors to this topic. 

Peer reviewersVIEW ALL

Assistant Professor of Ophthalmology

Mount Sinai Medical School

New York

NY

Disclosures

PP is an author of a reference cited in this topic.

Consultant Ophthalmologist

Sunderland Eye Infirmary

Sunderland

UK

Disclosures

SF declares that he has no competing interests.

Consultant Ophthalmologist

Sunderland Eye Infirmary

Newcastle

UK

Disclosures

DA declares that he has no competing interests.

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