Last reviewed: 6 Nov 2021
Last updated: 06 Jan 2021

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Corneal ulcer
  • Dry eye syndrome (tear dysfunction syndrome)
  • Dry age-related macular degeneration
  • Posterior uveitis
  • Cataract
  • Non-diabetic myopic lens shift
  • Wet age-related macular degeneration
  • Vitreous haemorrhage
  • Retinal venous occlusion
  • Retinal arterial occlusion
  • Stroke
  • Migraine headache or acephalgic migraine aura
  • Pituitary tumour
  • Diabetic retinopathy
  • Diabetic myopic lens shift

Uncommon

  • Corneal hydrops
  • Traumatic vision loss
  • Optic neuritis
  • Papilloedema
  • Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON)
  • Acute angle-closure glaucoma
  • Retinal detachment
  • Post-operative endophthalmitis
  • Central retinal artery occlusion
  • Pituitary apoplexy
  • Arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy/giant cell arteritis
  • Non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy
  • Transient ischaemic attack (TIA)
  • Cancer-associated retinopathy

Contributors

Authors

Jeffrey R. SooHoo, MD

Associate Professor

Sue Anschutz-Rodgers Eye Center

Department of Ophthalmology

University of Colorado School of Medicine

Aurora

CO

Disclosures

JRS declares that he has no competing interests.

Acknowledgements

Dr Jeffrey R. SooHoo would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Prem S. Subramanian, the previous contributor to this topic. PSS declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

Andrew G. Lee, MD

The H. Stanley Neuro-ophthalmology Professor of Ophthalmology, Neurology, and Neurosurgery

The University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics

Iowa City

IA

Disclosures

AGL declares that he has no competing interests.

Robert Avery, MD, PhD

Professor of Ophthalmology

University of New Mexico Medical School

Albuquerque

NM

Disclosures

RA declares that he has no competing interests.

Augusto Azuara-Blanco, PhD, FRCS(Ed), FRCOphth

Clinical Senior Lecturer

Health Services Research Unit

University of Aberdeen

Honorary Consultant Ophthalmologist

NHS Grampian

Aberdeen

UK

Disclosures

AA-B declares that he has no competing interests.

Stephen Vernon, DM, FRCS, FRCOphth, FCOptom (Hon), DO

Special Professor of Ophthalmology

University of Nottingham

Consultant Ophthalmic Surgeon

Nottingham University Hospitals

Nottingham

UK

Disclosures

None declared.

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