Last reviewed:December 2019
Last updated:February  2019

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • oedema
  • elevated BP

Other diagnostic factors

  • incidental proteinuria or abnormal renal function
  • xanthelasma
  • foamy urine
  • fatigue/malaise
  • anorexia
  • Muehrcke's lines

Risk factors

  • male sex
  • age >40 years
  • HLA-DR3
  • autoimmune disease
  • hepatitis B and C
  • syphilis
  • solid organ carcinoma
  • medications
  • sarcoidosis
  • post-renal transplantation

Diagnostic investigations

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Professor

Department of Internal Medicine

Division of Nephrology

University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics

Iowa City

IA

Disclosures

MS receives royalties from McGraw-Hill as an editor of the book DeGowin's Diagnostic Examination.

Professor Manish Suneja would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Aash Bhatt, a previous contributor to this topic. AB declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewersVIEW ALL

Medical Director

Blood Management

Cleveland Clinic

Cleveland

OH

Disclosures

AK has received a fee for speaking about perioperative blood management from Ortho-Biotech and has also received reimbursement from medscape.com for the education webcast of the same presentation.

Professor of Nephrology

Institute of Urology and Nephrology

University College London

London

UK

Disclosures

GN declares that he has no competing interests.

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