Serum creatinine concentration is maintained by the balance between its generation, mostly in skeletal muscle, and its excretion by the kidneys. Because creatinine is generated in a steady manner and can be measured very simply from blood samples, it has become a useful test to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR), a measure of kidney function.
Serum creatinine levels are affected by factors that influence its generation, glomerular filtration, and tubular secretion. There is considerable variation in the excretion of creatinine based on individual patient factors and the time and method of testing. In addition, the choice of assay affects the measurement obtained.
The usual reference range of serum creatinine is:
60 to 110 micromol/L (0.7 to 1.2 mg/dL) for men
45 to 90 micromol/L (0.5 to 1.0 mg/dL) for women.
Acute kidney injury can be defined by changes in serum creatinine. Estimated GFR (eGFR) equations, based on serum creatinine, are generally used to stage chronic kidney disease (CKD).
- Diabetic nephropathy
- Systemic vasculitis
- Drug-related creatinine increase
- Contrast-induced nephropathy
- Volume depletion
- Congestive heart failure
- Acute interstitial nephritis
- Acute tubular necrosis
- Cardiac surgery
- Renal transplant rejection
- Biological serum creatinine variation
- Renal vein thrombosis
- Endogenous nephrotoxins (myoglobin, uric acid, calciphylaxis)
- Renal artery stenosis
- Traumatic renal infarction
- Multiple cholesterol emboli syndrome
- Obstructive uropathy
- Creatine supplementation
- Inherited kidney disease
- Methodological variations of measurement of creatinine
- Assay-interfering substances
- Chronic kidney disease in adults: assessment and management
- Acute kidney injury: prevention, detection and management
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