Assessment of anaemia

Last reviewed: 30 May 2022
Last updated: 25 Mar 2022

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Trauma
  • Acute gastrointestinal bleeding
  • Rupture of a vascular aneurysm
  • Surgery
  • Menorrhagia
  • Iron deficiency
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency
  • Folate deficiency
  • Myelodysplastic syndrome
  • Acute lymphocytic leukaemia
  • Acute myeloid leukaemia
  • Chronic myeloid leukaemia
  • Hairy cell leukaemia
  • Acquired aplastic anaemia
  • Infiltration by secondary malignancy
  • Pure red cell aplasia
  • Drug toxicity
  • Anaemia of chronic disease
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Chronic liver disease
  • Pregnancy
Full details

Uncommon

  • Generalised malnutrition
  • Cytotoxic chemotherapy
  • Radiotherapy
  • Alcohol misuse
  • Lead toxicity
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia
  • Transfusion reaction
  • Malaria
  • Viral hepatitis
  • Toxoplasmosis
  • Leishmaniasis
  • Parvovirus B19 infection
  • Infectious mononucleosis
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
  • Sickle cell anaemia
  • Thalassaemias
  • Hereditary spherocytosis
  • Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD)
  • Bone marrow failure syndromes
  • Haemolytic uraemic syndrome
  • Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
  • Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
  • Haemangioma
  • Malignant hypertension
  • Prosthetic valves and surfaces
  • Cutaneous burns
Full details

Contributors

Authors

Robert Zaiden, MD

Hematologist Oncologist

Baptist MD Anderson Cancer Center

Jacksonville

FL

Disclosures

RZ declares that he has no competing interests.

Acknowledgements

Dr Robert Zaiden would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Fauzia Rana, a previous contributor to this topic.

Disclosures

FR declares that she has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

Christoph Pechlaner, MD

Associate Professor of Medicine

Innsbruck Medical University

Innsbruck

Austria

Disclosures

CP declares that he has no competing interests.

John Densmore, MD, PhD

Associate Professor of Clinical Medicine

Department of Medicine

Division of Hematology/Oncology

University of Virginia

Charlottesville

VA

Disclosures

JD declares that he has no competing interests.

Carlos Aravena, MD

Internal Medicine Instructor

Member of Evidence Based Medicine Unit

Catholic University of Chile

Santiago

Chile

Disclosures

CA declares that he has no competing interests.

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