Last reviewed: July 2019
Last updated: June  2018




  • Dyslexia
  • Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
  • Down's syndrome (trisomy 21)
  • Fragile X syndrome
  • Tuberous sclerosis
  • Autism spectrum disorder
  • Fetal alcohol syndrome
  • Absence epilepsy
  • Social (pragmatic) communication disorder


  • Dyscalculia
  • Specific language disorder
  • Central auditory processing disorder (CAPD)
  • Developmental co-ordination disorder/dyspraxia
  • Prader-Willi syndrome
  • Angelman's syndrome
  • William's syndrome
  • Rett's syndrome
  • DiGeorge syndrome (velocardiofacial syndrome)
  • Turner's syndrome
  • Craniosynostosis
  • Congenital cytomegalovirus
  • Congenital toxoplasmosis
  • Congenital rubella
  • Teratogenic drugs
  • Extreme premature birth
  • Perinatal hypoxia
  • Bacterial meningitis
  • Encephalitis
  • Brain tumour
  • Traumatic brain injury
  • Hypoxia/asphyxia
  • Congenital hypothyroidism
  • Inborn errors of metabolism
  • Psychosocial deprivation
  • Acquired epileptic aphasia (Landau-Kleffner syndrome)
  • Epileptic encephalopathies
  • 15q11 duplication syndromes
  • 16p11.2 deletion syndrome


Authors VIEW ALL

Director of Pediatric Neurology

Cortica | Advanced Neurological Therapies for Autism

San Diego



KAS is Director of Pediatric Neurology at Cortica, a healthcare provider for children with autism and neurodevelopmental disorders. He serves as an advisor to NovoNordisk on studies evaluating cognition and neurodevelopment in individuals with haemophilia, and to Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals on long-term cognitive follow-up of children treated for neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia.

Dr Kevin A. Shapiro would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Jeremy Parr, the previous contributor to this monograph. JP is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Consultant in Paediatric Neurodisability

Evelina Children's Hospital

St Thomas' Hospital




PG declares that he has no competing interests.

Assistant Professor of Pediatrics

Department of Pediatrics

Research Director

Starlight Pediatrics

University of Rochester Medical Center




SHJ declares that she has no competing interests.

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