Assessment of learning difficulty and cognitive delay

Last reviewed: 26 Apr 2022
Last updated: 12 May 2022

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Dyslexia
  • Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
  • Down's syndrome (trisomy 21)
  • Fragile X syndrome
  • Tuberous sclerosis
  • Autism spectrum disorder
  • Fetal alcohol syndrome
  • Absence epilepsy
  • Social (pragmatic) communication disorder
Full details

Uncommon

  • Dyscalculia
  • Specific language disorder
  • Central auditory processing disorder (CAPD)
  • Developmental co-ordination disorder/dyspraxia
  • Prader-Willi syndrome
  • Angelman's syndrome
  • William's syndrome
  • Rett's syndrome
  • DiGeorge syndrome (velocardiofacial syndrome)
  • Turner's syndrome
  • Craniosynostosis
  • Congenital cytomegalovirus
  • Congenital toxoplasmosis
  • Congenital rubella
  • Teratogenic drugs
  • Extreme premature birth
  • Perinatal hypoxia
  • Bacterial meningitis
  • Encephalitis
  • Brain tumour
  • Traumatic brain injury
  • Hypoxia/asphyxia
  • Congenital hypothyroidism
  • Inborn errors of metabolism
  • Psychosocial deprivation
  • Acquired epileptic aphasia (Landau-Kleffner syndrome)
  • Epileptic encephalopathies
  • 15q11 duplication syndromes
  • 16p11.2 deletion syndrome
Full details

Contributors

Authors

Kevin A. Shapiro, MD, PhD

Director of Pediatric Neurology

Cortica | Advanced Neurological Therapies for Autism

Los Angeles

CA

Disclosures

KAS is Director of Research and Therapeutic Technologies at Cortica, a healthcare provider for children with autism and neurodevelopmental disorders. He serves as an advisor to NovoNordisk on studies evaluating cognition and neurodevelopment in individuals with haemophilia.

Acknowledgements

Dr Kevin A. Shapiro would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Jeremy Parr, the previous contributor to this topic.

Disclosures

JP is an author of a number of references cited in this topic.

Peer reviewers

Paul Gringras, MB ChB, MSc, MRCPCH

Consultant in Paediatric Neurodisability

Evelina Children's Hospital

St Thomas' Hospital

London

UK

Disclosures

PG declares that he has no competing interests.

Sandra H. Jee, MD, MPH

Assistant Professor of Pediatrics

Department of Pediatrics

Research Director

Starlight Pediatrics

University of Rochester Medical Center

Rochester

NY

Disclosures

SHJ declares that she has no competing interests.

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