Last reviewed: 25 Aug 2021
Last updated: 20 Aug 2021

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • pruritus
  • xerosis (dry skin)
  • sites of skin involvement

Other diagnostic factors

  • erythema
  • scaling
  • vesicles
  • papules
  • keratosis pilaris
  • excoriations
  • lichenification
  • hypopigmentation

Risk factors

  • filaggrin gene mutation
  • age <5 years
  • family history of eczema
  • allergic rhinitis
  • asthma
  • active and passive exposure to smoke

Diagnostic investigations

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors

Adelaide A. Hebert, MD

Professor & Director of Pediatric Dermatology

Clinical Specialist

Department of Dermatology and Pediatrics

University of Texas Health Sciences Center in Houston

Houston

TX

Disclosures

AAH serves on the board of the International Hyperhidrosis Society and the American Academy of Dermatology; consults for Pfizer, Galderma, LaRoche Posay, Arcutis, Incyte, Vyne, Varrica, Beiersdorf, Aslan, and Ortho Dermatologics; has undertaken or is undertaking contractual research for Pfizer, Galderma, Ortho Dermatologics, Aslan, Leo, Mayne, Arcutis, Incyte, Verrica, Novan, Brickell, and Almirall; is on the data safety monitoring boards for GSK, Regeneron, and Sanofi; and is on the speakers' bureaux for Pfizer, Almirall, and Galderma.

Eugenio G. Galindo, MD

Dermatology Clinical Research Fellow

UTHealth McGovern Medical School 

Houston

TX

Disclosures

EGG declares that he has no competing interests.

Acknowledgements

Dr Adelaide A. Hebert and Dr Eugenio G. Galindo would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Quoc-Bao D. Nguyen, Dr Mary D. DarConte, Dr Christina M. Gelbard, and Dr Daniel A. Grabella, previous contributors to this topic. QNN, MDD, CMG, and DAG declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

Amor Khachemoune, MD

Assistant Professor

New York University School of Medicine

NY

Disclosures

AK declares that he has no competing interests.

John English, MBBS, FRCP

Consultant Dermatologist

Department of Dermatology

Queen's Medical Centre

Nottingham University Hospitals

Nottingham

UK

Disclosures

JE declares that he has no competing interests.

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