Last reviewed: 3 Nov 2021
Last updated: 24 Jun 2021

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Infectious mononucleosis (Epstein-Barr virus)
  • HIV
  • Adenovirus
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
  • Herpes zoster (shingles)
  • Streptococcal pharyngitis

Uncommon

  • Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
  • Hodgkin's lymphoma
  • Metastatic solid tumour
  • Drug-associated lymphadenopathy
  • Serum sickness
  • Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)
  • Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1)
  • Mumps
  • Measles
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C
  • Cat scratch disease
  • Tuberculosis (TB)
  • Leprosy
  • Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI)
  • Syphilis
  • Tularaemia
  • Brucellosis
  • Rocky Mountain spotted fever
  • Histoplasmosis
  • Coccidioidomycosis
  • Cryptococcosis
  • Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)
  • Toxoplasmosis
  • Leishmaniasis
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Dermatomyositis
  • Sjogren's syndrome
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Crohn's disease
  • Kawasaki disease
  • Castleman's disease (angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia)
  • Kikuchi's disease (histiocytic necrotising lymphadenitis)
  • Inflammatory pseudotumour
  • Progressive transformation of germinal centres
  • Rosai-Dorfman disease (sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy)
  • Rubella
  • Genital herpes
  • Chancroid
  • Leptospirosis
  • Silicosis

Contributors

Authors

Jennie Y. Law, MD

Assistant Professor of Medicine

Division of Hematology/Oncology

Department of Medicine

University of Maryland School of Medicine

Baltimore, MD USA

Disclosures

JYL declares that she has no competing interests.

Acknowledgements

Dr Jennie Y. Law would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Michael E. Bromberg and Dr Efrat Dotan, previous contributors to this topic. MB and ED declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

Daniel Hodson, BM BCh

Principal Investigator, Medical Research Council Clinician Scientist

Honorary Consultant Haematologist

Wellcome-MRC Cambridge Stem Cell Institute

University of Cambridge, Department of Haematology

The Jeffrey Cheah Biomedical Centre

Cambridge Biomedical Campus

Cambridge

UK

Disclosures

DH has received a research funding scholarship from Gilead Sciences.

Paneesha Shankaranarayana, MBBS

Consultant Hematologist

Heartlands Hospital

Birmingham

UK

Disclosures

PS declares that she has no competing interests.

Rebecca Connor, MD

Chief Fellow

Section of Hematology and Oncology

Department of Internal Medicine

Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center

Winston-Salem

NC

Disclosures

RC declares that she has no competing interests.

Han Myint, MD, FRCP, FRCPath

Professor of Medicine

Director

Hematology Malignancies and Blood & Marrow Transplant Program

University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center

Denver

CO

Disclosures

HM declares that he has no competing interests.

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer