Last reviewed: July 2020
Last updated: May  2020

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Infectious mononucleosis (Epstein-Barr virus)
  • HIV
  • Adenovirus
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
  • Herpes zoster (shingles)
  • Streptococcal pharyngitis

Uncommon

  • Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
  • Hodgkin's lymphoma
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL)
  • Metastatic solid tumour
  • Drug-associated lymphadenopathy
  • Serum sickness
  • Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)
  • Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1)
  • Mumps
  • Measles
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C
  • Cat scratch disease
  • Tuberculosis (TB)
  • Leprosy
  • Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI)
  • Syphilis
  • Tularaemia
  • Brucellosis
  • Rocky Mountain spotted fever
  • Histoplasmosis
  • Coccidioidomycosis
  • Cryptococcosis
  • Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)
  • Toxoplasmosis
  • Leishmaniasis
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Dermatomyositis
  • Sjogren's syndrome
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Crohn's disease
  • Kawasaki disease
  • Castleman's disease (angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia)
  • Kikuchi's disease (histiocytic necrotising lymphadenitis)
  • Inflammatory pseudotumour
  • Progressive transformation of germinal centres
  • Rosai-Dorfman disease (sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy)
  • Rubella
  • Genital herpes
  • Chancroid
  • Leptospirosis
  • Silicosis

Contributors

Chief

Section of Hematology

Professor of Medicine, Thrombosis Research, and Pharmacology

Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University

Department of Medicine

Philadelphia

PA

Disclosures

MEB declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Michael E. Bromberg would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Efrat Dotan, a previous contributor to this topic.

Peer reviewersVIEW ALL

Principal Investigator, Medical Research Council Clinician Scientist

Honorary Consultant Haematologist

Wellcome-MRC Cambridge Stem Cell Institute

University of Cambridge, Department of Haematology

The Jeffrey Cheah Biomedical Centre

Cambridge Biomedical Campus

Cambridge

UK

Disclosures

DH has received a research funding scholarship from Gilead Sciences.

Consultant Hematologist

Heartlands Hospital

Birmingham

UK

Disclosures

PS declares that she has no competing interests.

Chief Fellow

Section of Hematology and Oncology

Department of Internal Medicine

Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center

Winston-Salem

NC

Disclosures

RC declares that she has no competing interests.

Professor of Medicine

Director

Hematology Malignancies and Blood & Marrow Transplant Program

University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center

Denver

CO

Disclosures

HM declares that he has no competing interests.

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