Lymphadenopathy is defined as lymph nodes that are abnormal in size, consistency or number.
The extent of lymphadenopathy is defined as localised, regional or generalised.
Lymphadenopathy is commonly encountered by physicians in clinical practice and requires a comprehensive evaluation. When initiating a work-up, the physician should pay close attention to the size, location, consistency and number of enlarged lymph nodes, as well as to the patient's age, duration of lymphadenopathy, exposures, and any associated symptoms.
Lymphadenopathy may be due to malignancy, hypersensitivity, infection, collagen vascular disease, atypical lymphoproliferative disorders, granulomatous diseases, and other miscellaneous causes.
- Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
- Hodgkin's lymphoma
- Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL)
- Metastatic solid tumour
- Drug-associated lymphadenopathy
- Serum sickness
- Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)
- Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1)
- Hepatitis B
- Hepatitis C
- Cat scratch disease
- Tuberculosis (TB)
- Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI)
- Rocky Mountain spotted fever
- Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)
- Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
- Rheumatoid arthritis
- Sjogren's syndrome
- Crohn's disease
- Kawasaki disease
- Castleman's disease (angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia)
- Kikuchi's disease (histiocytic necrotising lymphadenitis)
- Inflammatory pseudotumour
- Progressive transformation of germinal centres
- Rosai-Dorfman disease (sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy)
- Genital herpes
Section of Hematology
Professor of Medicine, Thrombosis Research, and Pharmacology
Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University
Department of Medicine
MEB declares that he has no competing interests.
Dr Michael E. Bromberg would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Efrat Dotan, a previous contributor to this topic.
Principal Investigator, Medical Research Council Clinician Scientist
Honorary Consultant Haematologist
Wellcome-MRC Cambridge Stem Cell Institute
University of Cambridge, Department of Haematology
The Jeffrey Cheah Biomedical Centre
Cambridge Biomedical Campus
DH has received a research funding scholarship from Gilead Sciences.
PS declares that she has no competing interests.
Section of Hematology and Oncology
Department of Internal Medicine
Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center
RC declares that she has no competing interests.
Professor of Medicine
Hematology Malignancies and Blood & Marrow Transplant Program
University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center
HM declares that he has no competing interests.
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