A very common cause of gastroenteritis in the developed world, and invasive disease in the developing world.
Salmonella enterica causes both sporadic infections and outbreaks of disease.
Almost any food product can be contaminated, but outbreaks are most commonly due to poultry, dairy items such as raw milk, and undercooked eggs. Outbreaks associated with ingestion of peanut products and raw produce such as sprouts have been described. Reptile exposure also has been associated with the development of the disease.
The clinical presentation is most commonly a self-limited gastroenteritis.
Diagnosis relies on isolation of the organism from stool cultures or by detection of pathogen-specific nucleic acid.
Treatment includes fluid and electrolyte replacement; antibiotics are typically reserved for patients with risk factors for developing more severe disease or extraintestinal complications.
Non-typhoidal salmonellosis most commonly manifests as a self-limited gastroenteritis. It is caused by Salmonella, a genus within the family Enterobacteriaceae.
Salmonellae are gram-negative, non-spore-forming, facultatively anaerobic bacilli. The non-typhoidal Salmonella species includes all species and serotypes of Salmonella enterica excluding S Typhi and S Paratyphi, the causes of enteric fever. This topic discusses diagnosis and treatment of gastroenteritis caused by non-typhoidal Salmonella.
History and exam
- food exposures
- extremes of age (<12 months and >50 years)
- presence of an immunosuppressive state
- low gastric acidity
- exposure to symptomatic person with Salmonella
- animal contact
- use of antibiotics
- poorly controlled diabetes mellitus
- chronic granulomatous disease
- iron overload
William A. Petri, Jr, MD, PhD, FACP
Wade Hampton Frost Professor of Epidemiology
Professor of Medicine, Microbiology, and Pathology
Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health
University of Virginia
WAP declares that he has no competing interests.
Dr William A Petri would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Michael Preziosi, Dr Joshua Fierer, and Dr Nancy F. Crum-Cianflone, previous contributors to this topic. JF and NFCC are authors of references cited in this topic. MP declares that he has no competing interests.
David Acheson, MD
Chief Medical Officer
Director of Food Safety and Security
US Food and Drug Administration
DA declares that he has no competing interests.
Timothy Jones, MD
Deputy State Epidemiologist
Communicable and Environmental Disease Services
Tennessee Department of Health
TJ declares that he has no competing interests.
Franz Allerberger, MD, MPH
Head of Division
Division for Public Health
Austrian Agency for Health & Food Safety
FA declares that he has no competing interests.
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