Last reviewed: June 2020
Last updated: January  2018

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Other diagnostic factors

  • rectal bleeding
  • mucus discharge
  • tenesmus
  • change in bowel habit
  • signs of anaemia
  • fatigue

Risk factors

  • increasing age
  • FHx
  • previous history of polyps
  • male gender
  • acromegaly

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • colonoscopy
  • flexible sigmoidoscopy
  • double-contrast barium enema (DCBE)
  • virtual colonoscopy/CT colonography
  • chromoendoscopy
  • narrow band imaging (NBI)
More 1st investigations to order

Investigations to consider

  • histology
  • i-Scan endoscopic image enhancement technology
More investigations to consider

Emerging tests

  • autofluorescence
  • cap-assisted colonoscopy
More emerging tests

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Clinical Lecturer

Department of Surgery and Cancer

Imperial College

London

UK

Disclosures

GM declares that he has no competing interests.

Consultant Colorectal Surgeon

Department of Coloproctology

St. Mark's Hospital

London

UK

Disclosures

JTJ declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr George Malietzis and Dr John T. Jenkins would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Phil Tozer, a previous contributor to this monograph. PT declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewersVIEW ALL

Consultant Colorectal Surgeon

Glasgow Royal Infirmary

Glasgow

UK

Disclosures

JA declares that he has no competing interests.

Assistant Professor of Surgery

Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery

University Hospital Case Medical Center

Cleveland

OH

Disclosures

SS received a fee for educational courses on laparoscopic surgery, paid for in part by Covidien, Olympus, and Applied Medical.

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer