Osteosarcoma is the most common non-haematological primary malignant neoplasm of bone in children and adolescents.
Pain and swelling are the most common presenting symptoms.
Although it can occur at any age, it usually affects patients in the second and third decade of life with a peak incidence between 13 and 16 years of age. It is more common in males than females.
Chemotherapy combined with surgery is the standard of care.
Prognosis of patients with localised disease has improved substantially following the introduction of chemotherapy, with 75% to 80% 5-year survival rates.
The World Health Organization defines osteosarcoma as a primary osseous malignant neoplasm composed of mesenchymal cells producing osteoid and immature bone, even if only in small amounts.
History and exam
David Loeb, MD, PhD
Division of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology, and Marrow & Blood Cell Transplantation
Children's Hospital at Montefiore
Associate Professor, Pediatrics
Associate Professor, Developmental and Molecular Biology
Albert Einstein College of Medicine
DL declares that he has no competing interests.
Dr David Loeb would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Luminita Rezeanu and Dr Michael J. Klein, the previous contributors to this topic. LR and MJK declare that they have no competing interests.
Edward Sauter, MD, PhD
Professor of Surgery
Ellis Fischel Cancer Center
University of Missouri
ES declares that he has no competing interests.
Rachael Windsor, BSc, MBBS, MSc, MRCPCH
Locum Consultant Paediatric Oncologist
University College Hospital
RW declares that she has no competing interests.
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