Last reviewed: 4 Jul 2021
Last updated: 16 Jul 2021

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Myocardial infarction
  • Heart failure
  • Beta-blocker and other drug-related toxicity
  • Haemorrhage, external or internal from any site
  • Trauma with external or internal haemorrhage
  • Gastrointestinal fluid losses
  • Intestinal obstruction with fluid third spacing
  • Pancreatitis with fluid third spacing or haemorrhage
  • Burns
  • Excessive renal loss
  • Pulmonary embolism
  • Septic shock
  • Anaphylaxis
  • Poisoning and adverse drug reaction

Uncommon

  • Cardiomyopathy
  • Cardiac valve disease
  • Heat stroke and/or insensible fluid losses
  • Tension pneumothorax
  • Cardiac tamponade
  • Neurogenic shock
  • Adrenal crisis
  • Thiamine deficiency
  • Arteriovenous fistulae

Contributors

Authors

Samuel J. Stratton, MD, MPH
Samuel J. Stratton

Professor

Fielding School of Public Health

Professor

The David Geffen School of Medicine

University of California

Los Angeles

CA

Disclosures

SJS declares that he has no competing interests.

Acknowledgements

Dr Samuel J. Stratton would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Patrick Nee, Dr Joseph C. Farmer, and Dr Srikanth Hosur, the previous contributors to this topic. PN, JCF, and SH declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

Armand Mekontso Dessap, MD, PhD

Assistant Professor

Medical Intensive Care Unit

Henri Mondor Hospital

Creteil

France

Disclosures

AMD declares that he has no competing interests.

Ethan Cumbler, MD

Assistant Professor

Department of Internal Medicine

University of Colorado Health Sciences Center

Denver

CO

Disclosures

EC declares that he has no competing interests.

Haibo Wang, MD, PhD

Assistant Professor

LSU Health Sciences Center

Shreveport

LA

Disclosures

HW declares that he has no competing interests.

Karim Bendjelid, MD, PhD

Médecin Adjoint Agrégé

Intensive Care Division

Geneva University Hospitals

Geneva

Switzerland

Disclosures

KB declares that he has no competing interests.

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