Last reviewed: 28 Jun 2021
Last updated: 22 Jun 2018




  • Ischaemic optic neuropathy (II)
  • Multiple sclerosis (II)
  • Viral infection (II)
  • Subarachnoid haemorrhage (III, IV, VI)
  • Meningitis (III, IV, VI)
  • Ischaemic neuropathy (III, IV, VI)
  • Vascular malformations (V)
  • Herpes zoster (V)
  • Multiple sclerosis (V)
  • Bell's palsy (VII)
  • Ramsay Hunt syndrome (VII)
  • Cerebrovascular accident (VII)
  • Vestibular neuritis (VIII)
  • Neural presbycusis (VIII)
  • Drugs (VIII)
  • Iatrogenic (X)
  • Apical lung tumour (IX, X)
  • Iatrogenic (XI)
  • Cerebrovascular accident (XII)


  • Trauma (I)
  • Neurodegenerative disorders (I)
  • Congenital (I)
  • CNS tumours (I)
  • Optic canal trauma (II)
  • CNS tumours (II)
  • Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (II)
  • Autoimmune disease: (e.g., SLE, Sjogren's, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, Behcet's [II])
  • Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (II)
  • Optical toxins or nutritional deficiency (II)
  • Neuromyelitis optica (II)
  • Uncal herniation (III, IV, VI)
  • Migraine (III, IV, VI)
  • Trauma (III, IV, VI)
  • Cerebral aneurysms (III, IV, VI)
  • Cavernous-carotid fistula (III, IV, VI)
  • Cavernous sinus thrombus (III, IV, VI)
  • CNS tumours (III, IV, VI)
  • Drugs (III, IV, VI)
  • Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (III, IV, VI)
  • Congenital (III, IV, VI)
  • Post-LP (VI)
  • Meningitis (V)
  • CNS tumours (V)
  • Autoimmune disorders (V)
  • Skull-base osteomyelitis (V)
  • Trauma (V)
  • Dental abscess (V)
  • Spinal cord lesion (V)
  • Iatrogenic (V)
  • Mandibular tumours (V)
  • Congenital (V)
  • Tolosa-Hunt syndrome (V)
  • Wallenberg's syndrome (V)
  • Neurosarcoidosis (VII)
  • CNS tumours (VII)
  • Trauma (VII)
  • Meningitis (VII)
  • Iatrogenic (VII)
  • Middle ear or mastoid infection (VII)
  • Parotid tumour (VII)
  • HIV associated (VII)
  • Lyme disease (VII)
  • CNS tumours (VIII)
  • CNS tumours (IX, X)
  • Parapharyngeal tumour (IX, X)
  • Meningitis (IX,X)
  • Skull-base osteomyelitis (IX, X)
  • Trauma (IX, X)
  • Parapharyngeal space infection (IX, X)
  • Eagle's syndrome (IX)
  • Cardiovocal syndrome (X)
  • Trauma (XI)
  • CNS tumours (XI)
  • CNS tumours (XII)
  • Progressive bulbar palsy (XII)
  • Chiari I and II malformations (XII)
  • Extracranial (tongue or neck) or skull-base tumours (XII)
  • Meningitis (XII)
  • Skull-base osteomyelitis (XII)
  • Parapharyngeal space infection (XII)
  • Trauma (XII)
  • Dural arteriovenous fistula (XII)
  • Internal carotid artery aneurysm or dissection (XII)
  • Iatrogenic (XII)



Ann Johnston, MB BS, MRCP

Consultant Neurologist

Department of Neurology

University Hospital of Wales




AJ declares that she has no conflicting interests.

Emma Tallantyre, BMBS, PhD

Neurology Specialist Registrar

University Hospital of Wales




ET declares that she has no conflicting interests.


Dr Johnston and Dr Tallantyre would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Zachary L. Hickman, Dr Brad E. Zacharia, Dr Christopher J. Winfree, and Dr Adrian J. Wills, the previous contributors to this monograph. ZLH, BEZ, CJW, and AJW declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

Robert L. Ruff, MD, PhD

Professor of Neurology

Department of Neurology

Cleveland VA Medical Center




RLR declares that he has no competing interests.

Sabrina Ravaglia, MD, PhD

Staff Physician

Department of Neurological Sciences

Institute of Neurology C. Mondino




SR declares that she has no competing interests.

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer