Assessment of cranial nerve mononeuropathy

Last reviewed: 27 Dec 2022
Last updated: 17 May 2022




  • Ischaemic optic neuropathy (II)
  • Multiple sclerosis (II)
  • Viral infection (II)
  • Subarachnoid haemorrhage (III, IV, VI)
  • Meningitis (III, IV, VI)
  • Ischaemic neuropathy (III, IV, VI)
  • Vascular malformations (V)
  • Herpes zoster (V)
  • Multiple sclerosis (V)
  • Bell's palsy (VII)
  • Ramsay Hunt syndrome (VII)
  • Ischaemic stroke (VII)
  • Vestibular neuritis (VIII)
  • Neural presbycusis (VIII)
  • Drugs (VIII)
  • Iatrogenic (X)
  • Apical lung tumour (IX, X)
  • Iatrogenic (XI)
  • Ischaemic stroke (XII)
Full details


  • Trauma (I)
  • Neurodegenerative disorders (I)
  • Congenital (I)
  • CNS tumours (I)
  • Optic canal trauma (II)
  • CNS tumours (II)
  • Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (II)
  • Autoimmune disease: (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjogren's, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, Behcet's disease [II])
  • Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (II)
  • Optical toxins or nutritional deficiency (II)
  • Neuromyelitis optica (II)
  • Uncal herniation (III, IV, VI)
  • Migraine (III, IV, VI)
  • Trauma (III, IV, VI)
  • Cerebral aneurysms (III, IV, VI)
  • Cavernous-carotid fistula (III, IV, VI)
  • Cavernous sinus thrombus (III, IV, VI)
  • CNS tumours (III, IV, VI)
  • Drugs (III, IV, VI)
  • Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (III, IV, VI)
  • Congenital (III, IV, VI)
  • Post-lumbar puncture (VI)
  • Meningitis (V)
  • CNS tumours (V)
  • Autoimmune disorders (V)
  • Skull-base osteomyelitis (V)
  • Trauma (V)
  • Dental abscess (V)
  • Spinal cord lesion (V)
  • Iatrogenic (V)
  • Mandibular tumours (V)
  • Congenital (V)
  • Tolosa-Hunt syndrome (V)
  • Wallenberg's syndrome (V)
  • Neurosarcoidosis (VII)
  • CNS tumours (VII)
  • Trauma (VII)
  • Meningitis (VII)
  • Iatrogenic (VII)
  • Middle ear or mastoid infection (VII)
  • Parotid tumour (VII)
  • HIV associated (VII)
  • Lyme disease (VII)
  • CNS tumours (VIII)
  • CNS tumours (IX, X)
  • Parapharyngeal tumour (IX, X)
  • Meningitis (IX,X)
  • Skull-base osteomyelitis (IX, X)
  • Trauma (IX, X)
  • Parapharyngeal space infection (IX, X)
  • Eagle's syndrome (IX)
  • Cardiovocal syndrome (X)
  • Trauma (XI)
  • CNS tumours (XI)
  • CNS tumours (XII)
  • Progressive bulbar palsy (XII)
  • Chiari I and II malformations (XII)
  • Extracranial (tongue or neck) or skull-base tumours (XII)
  • Meningitis (XII)
  • Skull-base osteomyelitis (XII)
  • Parapharyngeal space infection (XII)
  • Trauma (XII)
  • Dural arteriovenous fistula (XII)
  • Internal carotid artery aneurysm or dissection (XII)
  • Iatrogenic (XII)
Full details



Ann Johnston, MB BS, MRCP

Consultant Neurologist

Department of Neurology

University Hospital of Wales




AJ has received speaker fees from UCB and Eisai for lectures given.

Emma Tallantyre, BMBS, PhD

Neurology Specialist Registrar

University Hospital of Wales




ET has received honoraria for consulting work from Novartis, Merck, Biogen, and Roche. She has received travel grants to attend or speak at educational meetings from Merck, Roche, Takeda, and Novartis.


Dr Johnston and Dr Tallantyre would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Zachary L. Hickman, Dr Brad E. Zacharia, Dr Christopher J. Winfree, and Dr Adrian J. Wills, the previous contributors to this topic.


ZLH, BEZ, CJW, and AJW declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

Robert L. Ruff, MD, PhD

Professor of Neurology

Department of Neurology

Cleveland VA Medical Center




RLR declares that he has no competing interests.

Sabrina Ravaglia, MD, PhD

Staff Physician

Department of Neurological Sciences

Institute of Neurology C. Mondino




SR declares that she has no competing interests.

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