Paraphimosis

Last reviewed: 16 Apr 2022
Last updated: 08 Jan 2020

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • penile pain
  • band of retracted foreskin tissue beneath the glans
  • swollen glans penis
  • indwelling catheter
More key diagnostic factors

Other diagnostic factors

  • erythema
  • black tissue on the glans
  • non-pliable glans penis
  • inability to urinate freely
Other diagnostic factors

Risk factors

  • lack of circumcision
  • urinary catheterisation
  • dependence on a carer for daily hygiene
  • tight foreskin
  • phimosis
  • poor hygiene
  • bacterial infection
  • parasitic infections
  • lichen sclerosis
  • diabetes
  • penile piercing
  • haemangiomas of the penis
  • peripheral vascular disease
  • inadequate circumcision
More risk factors

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • clinical diagnosis
More 1st investigations to order

Treatment algorithm

ACUTE

with ischaemia and necrosis

acute type without ischaemia and necrosis

chronic type without ischaemia and necrosis

Contributors

Authors

Ranjiv Mathews, MD
Ranjiv Mathews

Associate Professor

Pediatric Urology

Johns Hopkins School of Medicine

Baltimore

MD

Disclosures

RM declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

John Thomas, MD

Assistant Professor of Urologic Surgery

Division of Pediatric Urology

Monroe Carell Jr. Children's Hospital at Vanderbilt

Nashville

TN

Disclosures

JT declares that he has no competing interests.

Vincent Gnanapragasam, MBBS, BMedSci, PhD, FRCSEng, FRCSEd(Urol)

Lecturer in Uro-oncology and Consultant Urological Surgeon

Department of Urology

Addenbrooke's Hospital

Cambridge

UK

Disclosures

VG declares that he has no competing interests.

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