Occurs in 1 of every 2500 to 4500 live births.
There are no known predisposing factors; however, the condition often presents with other congenital anomalies, including VACTERL complex (vertebral defects, anorectal anomalies, cardiac defects, tracheo-oesophageal abnormalities, radial and renal abnormalities, and limb anomalies).
Surgical intervention is required as a newborn.
Patients may have long-term complications, such as GORD, tracheomalacia, and chronic respiratory infections.
Oesophageal atresia (OA) and tracheo-oesophageal fistula (TOF) are congenital malformations that result from defective separation of the oesophagus and trachea. A blind-ending upper oesophageal pouch with a fistulous connection between the distal oesophageal segment and the trachea is the most common type.
History and exam
UC Department of Surgery
UC Department of Pediatrics
Cincinnati Children's Hospital
AJB declares that he has no competing interests.
Dr Alexander J. Bondoc would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Steven S. Rothenberg, a previous contributor to this topic.
Surgeon in Chief
Professor of Surgery
Department of Pediatric Surgery
Children's Hospital of Michigan
Wayne State University School of Medicine
MDK declares that he has no competing interests.
Division Pediatric General and Thoracic Surgery
Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC
TDK declares that he has no competing interests.
Emeritus Nuffield Professor of Paediatric Surgery
Institute of Child Health
LS declares that he has no competing interests.
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