Last reviewed:September 2019
Last updated:November  2018

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • maternal history of polyhydramniosis
  • inability to swallow secretions
  • inability to pass a nasogastric tube

Other diagnostic factors

  • laboured respiration
  • coughing
  • choking
  • VACTERL association
  • cyanosis

Risk factors

  • trisomy 18 and 21
  • family history

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • antenatal ultrasound
  • antenatal MRI
  • x-ray chest and abdomen
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • bronchoscopy
  • oesophagoscopy
  • barium swallow
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Assistant Professor

UC Department of Surgery

UC Department of Pediatrics

Cincinnati Children's Hospital

Cincinnati

OH

Disclosures

AJB declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Alexander J. Bondoc would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Steven S. Rothenberg, a previous contributor to this topic.

Peer reviewersVIEW ALL

Surgeon in Chief

Professor of Surgery

Department of Pediatric Surgery

Children's Hospital of Michigan

Wayne State University School of Medicine

Detroit

MI

Disclosures

MDK declares that he has no competing interests.

Clinical Director

Division Pediatric General and Thoracic Surgery

Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC

Pittsburgh

PA

Disclosures

TDK declares that he has no competing interests.

Emeritus Nuffield Professor of Paediatric Surgery

Institute of Child Health

University College

London

UK

Disclosures

LS declares that he has no competing interests.

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