Neck deformity that involves shortening of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle resulting in limited neck rotation and lateral flexion.
Infants tilt their head towards the side of the shortened muscle and rotate to the contralateral side.
Plagiocephaly and craniofacial deformities can be associated with congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) and can perpetuate one another.
Developmental hip dysplasia can be associated with CMT.
It is important to rule out non-muscular causes such as ocular, vertebral, and neurological.
Treatment includes carer education on positioning and physiotherapy; botulinum toxin type A injections or surgery are reserved for recalcitrant cases.
Congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) is a neck deformity that involves shortening of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle resulting in limited neck rotation and lateral flexion. This results in a head tilt to the affected side and rotation to the contralateral side.
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
University of Colorado School of Medicine and The Children's Hospital Colorado
JLO is co-author of one of the references cited in this monograph.
Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer