Last reviewed: 25 Oct 2020
Last updated: 23 Apr 2020

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • high fever
  • exanthem

Other diagnostic factors

  • diarrhoea
  • abdominal pain
  • Nagayama's spots
  • tympanic membrane inflammation
  • upper respiratory symptoms
  • seizures
  • peri-orbital oedema
  • bulging anterior fontanelle
  • cervical, occipital, or post-auricular lymphadenopathy

Risk factors

  • age under 2 years
  • immunosuppression

Diagnostic investigations

Treatment algorithm

ACUTE

Contributors

Assistant Professor of Pediatric Infectious Disease and Immunology

University of Connecticut Medical Center and Connecticut Children’s Medical Center

Hartford

CT

Disclosures

ECK declares that he has no competing interests.

Professor of Pediatrics and Family Medicine

University of Connecticut Medical Center and Connecticut Children’s Medical Center

Farmington

CT

Disclosures

HMF declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Edward C. Kim and Dr Henry M. Feder would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Nicholas Bennett, Dr James Azim, Dr Margie C. Andreae, Dr Jon Dyer, and Dr Jennifer Holman, the previous contributors to this topic. NB, JA, MCA, JD, and JH declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewersVIEW ALL

Consultant Paediatrician

Heartlands Hospital

Birmingham

UK

Disclosures

HG declares that she has no competing interests.

Associate Professor of Pediatrics

Department of Pediatrics

Division of Infectious Diseases

University of Rochester Medical Center

Rochester

NY

Disclosures

MTC declares that she has no competing interests.

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