Last reviewed: March 2020
Last updated: February  2020

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • positive family history
  • equinus deformity
  • hind foot in varus and adducted
  • forefoot adducted

Other diagnostic factors

  • male sex
  • hip dysplasia
  • neurological or chromosomal abnormalities
  • smaller lower extremity
  • dimpling, hairy patch along spine line

Risk factors

  • family history of equinovarus foot deformity
  • male sex
  • associated congenital abnormalities
  • parental smoking

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of foot
  • dynamic hip ultrasound
  • pelvic x-rays
  • CT foot
  • CT spine
  • abdominal ultrasound
More investigations to consider

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Scott E. Van Valin

Assistant Professor

Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgery

Medical College of Wisconsin

Milwaukee

WI

Disclosures

SEVV declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewersVIEW ALL

Assistant Professor of Orthopaedics

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery

Loma Linda University

Loma Linda

CA

Disclosures

SK declares that he has no competing interests.

Pediatric Orthopedic Surgeon

Akron Children's Hospital

Akron

OH

Disclosures

MJA declares that he has no competing interests.

Consultant Orthopaedic Surgeon

Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic and District Hospital NHS Trust

Oswestry

Shropshire

UK

Disclosures

NK declares that he has no competing interests.

Consultant

Paediatric Orthopaedic Surgery

Ninewells Hospital and Medical School

Dundee

Scotland

UK

Disclosures

Not disclosed.

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