Lesions are red, inflamed, silvery-white scaly, and circumscribed papules and plaques on elbows, knees, extensor limbs, and scalp. Psoriatic nails have a pitted surface and/or hypertrophic (subungual) changes.
Runs a variable course and seldom completely subsides. Severity is aggravated by genetic, infectious, emotional, and environmental factors.
Diagnosis is usually clinical.
Mild or limited psoriasis is treated with topical corticosteroids and/or vitamin D analogues.
Moderate to severe and/or extensive psoriasis may require phototherapy, and systemic agents such as oral retinoids, methotrexate, biological agents, ciclosporin or apremilast.
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterised by erythematous, circumscribed scaly papules, and plaques on elbows, knees, extensor limbs, scalp, and, less commonly, nails, ears, and umbilical region. The disease is typically lifelong, with a fluctuating course of exacerbations and remission. It causes itching, irritation, burning, and stinging in half the cases. Although the classification typically includes psoriatic arthritis, skin manifestations only are discussed in this topic.
University of Pisa
University Hospital of Pisa
to be confirmed
Dr Andrea Chiricozzi would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr April W. Armstrong and Dr Tsu-Yi Chuang, previous contributors to this topic. TC declares that he has no competing interests. AWA is an investigator and consultant for Abbott, Amgen, and Janssen; AWA is also the author of references cited in this topic.
Western Infirmary, Glasgow
Consultant Dermatologist Dermatology
DB is an author of a clinical practice guideline referenced in this topic. DB has been reimbursed as a consultant, researcher, and lecturer for Abbott, Leo, Pfizer, Merck, Janssen-Cilag, and Novartis.
Department of Dermatology
Kaiser Permanente Vallejo Medical Center
PM declares that she has no competing interests.
Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer