Last reviewed: January 2019
Last updated: January  2019

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Other diagnostic factors

  • family history
  • skin discomfort

Risk factors

  • genetic
  • infection
  • local trauma
  • stress
  • smoking
  • light skin
  • alcohol intake (beer)

Diagnostic investigations

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Assistant Professor

University of Pisa

Consultant Dermatologist

University Hospital of Pisa

Pisa

Italy

Disclosures

AC has been reimbursed as a consultant and/or speaker for AbbVie, Biogen, Leo Pharma, Lilly, Janssen, and Novartis; AC is also the author of references cited in this topic.

Dr Andrea Chiricozzi would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr April W. Armstrong and Dr Tsu-Yi Chuang, previous contributors to this topic.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Western Infirmary, Glasgow

Consultant Dermatologist Dermatology

Glasgow

UK

Disclosures

DB is an author of a clinical practice guideline referenced in this topic. DB has been reimbursed as a consultant, researcher, and lecturer for Abbott, Leo, Pfizer, Merck, Janssen-Cilag, and Novartis.

Physician

Department of Dermatology

Kaiser Permanente Vallejo Medical Center

Vallejo

CA

Disclosures

PM declares that she has no competing interests.

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