Last reviewed: June 2018
Last updated: December  2017

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Risk factors

  • genetic
  • infection
  • local trauma
  • stress
  • smoking
  • light skin
  • alcohol intake (beer)

Diagnostic investigations

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Assistant Professor

University of Pisa

Consultant Dermatologist

University Hospital of Pisa

Pisa

Italy

Disclosures

to be confirmed

Dr Andrea Chiricozzi would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr April W. Armstrong and Dr Tsu-Yi Chuang, previous contributors to this topic. TC declares that he has no competing interests. AWA is an investigator and consultant for Abbott, Amgen, and Janssen; AWA is also the author of references cited in this topic.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Western Infirmary, Glasgow

Consultant Dermatologist Dermatology

Glasgow

UK

Disclosures

DB is an author of a clinical practice guideline referenced in this topic. DB has been reimbursed as a consultant, researcher, and lecturer for Abbott, Leo, Pfizer, Merck, Janssen-Cilag, and Novartis.

Physician

Department of Dermatology

Kaiser Permanente Vallejo Medical Center

Vallejo

CA

Disclosures

PM declares that she has no competing interests.

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