Last reviewed: June 2020
Last updated: March  2020

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • family history of breast cancer

Other diagnostic factors

  • nipple discharge
  • breast lump
  • eczema-like rash on breast
  • ulceration

Risk factors

  • family history of breast cancer
  • benign breast disease on prior biopsy
  • hereditary breast ovarian cancer syndrome
  • Li-Fraumeni syndrome
  • Cowden syndrome
  • hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC)
  • Peutz-Jeghers syndrome
  • Klinefelter's syndrome
  • older age at menopause
  • older age at first full-term pregnancy
  • nulliparity
  • low physical activity
  • high vitamin A intake
  • ataxia telangiectasia

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • biopsy (fine-needle or core)
  • stereotactic biopsy
  • sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNLB)
  • ultrasound-guided biopsy
  • magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • ultrasonography
  • hormone receptor testing
  • genetic testing
More investigations to consider

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Edward R. Sauter

Medical Officer

Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Working Group

Division of Cancer Prevention

National Cancer Institute

Bethesda

MD

Disclosures

ERS is an author of a reference cited in this topic.

Dr Edward R. Sauter would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Rachel L. Ruhlen, a previous contributor to this topic.

Peer reviewersVIEW ALL

Radiologist

Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre

Nijmegen

The Netherlands

Disclosures

CB is an author of a number of references cited in this topic.

Assistant in the Division of Medical Oncology

European Institute of Oncology

Milan

Italy

Disclosures

AB declares that she has no competing interests.

Associate Professor in Epidemiology and Medical Oncology

Johns Hopkins School of Medicine and Bloomberg School of Public Health

Baltimore

MD

Disclosures

KV is an author of a number of references cited in this topic.

Consultant Surgeon and Honorary Senior Lecturer

Edinburgh Breast Unit

Western General Hospital

Edinburgh

UK

Disclosures

GTN is a principal investigator for the IBIS-II trial, and is an author of a guideline cited in this topic.

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