Primarily nocturnal symptoms in children older than 5 years of age.
Differentials include diabetes, medications, emotional problems, urinary tract infection, spina bifida, seizure disorder, and neurogenic bladder.
Treatment is commonly involves behavioural changes, alarm therapy, or desmopressin.
Emotional support and encouragement is vital to management.
Enuresis is defined as normal micturition that occurs at an inappropriate or socially unacceptable time or place. As recommended by International Children's Continence Society, in this topic 'enuresis' is reserved for micturition during sleep, or bedwetting. Daytime wetting is called 'incontinence'.
History and exam
Erin C. Grantham, MD
Department of Urology
ECG declares that she has no competing interests.
Dr Erin C. Grantham would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Duncan T. Wilcox and Dr Nicholas G. Cost, the previous contributors to this topic. DTW and NGC declare that they have no competing interests.
Prasad Godbole, FRCS, FRCS (Paed), FEAPU
Consultant Paediatric Urologist
Paediatric Surgical Unit
Sheffield Children's NHS Foundation Trust
PG declares that he has no competing interests.
Elizabeth Jackson, MD
Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
EJ declares that she has no competing interests.
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