Last reviewed: 15 Sep 2021
Last updated: 31 Dec 2019

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • vaginal protrusion/bulge
  • sensation of vaginal pressure

Other diagnostic factors

  • urinary incontinence
  • constipation
  • pelvic pain
  • urinary retention
  • disordered defecation
  • sexual dysfunction
  • lower back pain

Risk factors

  • vaginal delivery
  • older age
  • high BMI
  • previous surgery for prolapse
  • genetic factors
  • white ancestry
  • increased intra-abdominal pressure

Diagnostic investigations

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors

Lior Lowenstein, MD, MS, MHA, MBA
Lior Lowenstein

Associate Clinical Professor and Head of Gynecology Division

Rambam Health Care Campus

Rappaport Faculty of Medicine

Technion-Israel Institute of Technology

Haifa

Israel

Disclosures

LL declares that he has no competing interests.

Linda Brubaker, MD, MS
Linda Brubaker

Professor

Dean of the Faculty of Medicine

Loyola University

Chicago

IL

Disclosures

LB has received an editorial honorarium from UpToDate.

Peer reviewers

Chiara Ghetti, MD

Assistant Professor

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences

Division of Urogynecology and Pelvic Reconstructive Surgery

University of Pittsburgh

Pittsburgh

PA

Disclosures

CG declares that she has no competing interests.

Sushma Srikrishna, MRCOG

Locum Consultant Urogynaecologist and Obstetrician

Kings College Hospital

London

UK

Disclosures

SS declares that she has no competing interests.

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