Key symptoms are chronic nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain, bloating, and early satiety.
Gastric emptying scintigraphy demonstrating >10% retention of the radionuclide meal at the end of 4 hours is diagnostic.
Usually idiopathic; however, other common aetiologies include diabetes mellitus and previous gastric surgery.
Treatment options include prokinetic agents, anti-emetics, analgesia, and maintenance of optimal nutritional status.
A symptomatic chronic disorder of the stomach defined as delayed emptying of solids by the stomach in the absence of any mechanical obstruction.
History and exam
- diabetes mellitus
- previous gastric and pancreatic surgery
- female sex
- coeliac disease
- Parkinson's disease
- multiple sclerosis
- chronic renal insufficiency
- acute viral infection
- paraneoplastic syndrome (tumour-associated)
- use of specific drugs
- use of alcohol
Associate Professor of Medicine
Phoenix Regional Campus
St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center
SCR declares that he has no competing interests.
Professor of Medicine
Division of Gastroenterology
University of Kansas Medical Center
MMO declares that he has no competing interests.
Michigan State University
JK declares that he has no competing interests.
Department of Medicine
Clinical Sciences Building
Cork University Hospital
EMMQ declares that he has no competing interests.
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