Last reviewed: April 2018
Last updated: February  2018

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF)
  • Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF)
  • Cor pulmonale
  • Deep venous thrombosis
  • Chronic venous insufficiency
  • Nephrotic syndrome
  • Cirrhosis
  • Pregnancy
  • Premenstrual oedema

Uncommon

  • Pericardial effusion
  • Constrictive pericarditis
  • Restrictive cardiomyopathy
  • Tricuspid regurgitation
  • Sleep apnoea
  • May-Thurner syndrome
  • Hepatic venous outflow obstruction (includes Budd-Chiari syndrome, portal vein thrombosis, and hepatic veno-occlusive disease)
  • Renal failure
  • Protein-losing enteropathy
  • Angio-oedema
  • Sepsis
  • Compartment syndrome
  • Primary lymphoedema
  • Secondary lymphoedema
  • Idiopathic
  • Severe malnutrition
  • Hypothyroidism/myxoedema
  • Medicine-induced oedema
  • Ruptured Baker's cyst
  • Yellow nail syndrome
  • Pelvic tumour causing external pressure on pelvic veins

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Associate Professor, College of Nursing

University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus

Denver

CO

Disclosures

LDR declares that she has no competing interests.

Professor of Medicine

Division of Hospital Medicine

Department of Internal Medicine

University of Colorado

Denver

CO

Disclosures

EC declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Associate Professor

Department of Cardiology

University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center

Houston

TX

Disclosures

SWY declares that he has no competing interests.

Basic Physician Trainee RACP

Logan Hospital

Meadowbrook

Queensland

Australia

Disclosures

PR declares that he has no competing interests.

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