Last reviewed: September 2018
Last updated: May  2018

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • fever
  • vesicular rash
  • vesicles on mucous membranes

Other diagnostic factors

  • pruritus
  • headache
  • fatigue/malaise
  • sore throat
  • tachycardia

Risk factors

  • age 1 to 9 years
  • exposure to varicella
  • unimmunised status
  • occupational exposure

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • polymerase chain reaction
  • viral culture
  • direct fluorescent antibody testing (DFA)
  • Tzanck smear
  • latex agglutination (LA)
  • enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
  • complement fixation
  • ultrasound (pregnant women)
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Consultant in Paediatric Infectious Diseases and Immunology

Royal Liverpool Children's Hospital (Alder Hey)

Liverpool

UK

Disclosures

AR declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Andrew Riordan would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Steven Pergam, Dr Rupali Jain, and Dr Anna Wald, previous contributors to this topic.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Chief

Outpatient & Pediatric Dermatology

59th Medical Wing/ SGOMD

Lackland Air Force Base

San Antonio

TX

Disclosures

CMH declares that he has no competing interests.

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer