Last reviewed: September 2018
Last updated: May  2018

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • febrile illness
  • seizure

Other diagnostic factors

  • normal postictal exam

Risk factors

  • temperature elevation
  • young age
  • male gender
  • family history of febrile seizures
  • viral or bacterial infection outside the central nervous system
  • vaccinations
  • antenatal exposure to nicotine
  • iron deficiency
  • complications of pregnancy, labour, and delivery

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • LP
  • viral studies
  • blood culture
  • EEG
  • brain MRI
  • serum sodium
  • FBC
  • serum glucose
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Consultant paediatric neurologist

St Mary’s Hospital

Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust

London

Disclosures

LM has received funding from drug companies (e.g., Eisai) to attend medical conferences and been invited to an educational symposium (Novartis, LivaNova).

Paediatric specialist trainee

St Mary’s Hospital

Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust

London

Disclosures

FM declares that she has no competing interests.

LM and FM wish to gratefully acknowledge John J. Millichap and J. Gordon Millichap, previous contributors to this topic. JJM serves as an Associate Editor of Neurology and serves on the editorial board of Pediatric Neurology Briefs; volunteers on the medical advisory board of The Jack Pribaz Foundation (KCNQ2.org); received speaker honoraria from Invitae; received royalties for online monographs from Up-To-Date; served on the scientific advisory board for Mallinckrodt; is principal investigator for a clinical trial funded by UCB Pharma; and is the principal investigator for research grants from Citizens United for Research in Epilepsy (CURE) and Thrasher Research Fund. JJM is an author of a number of references cited in this topic. JGM is an author of a number of references cited in this topic.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Professor

Department of Neurology

University of Virginia Health System

Charlottesville

VA

Disclosures

RSR declares that he has no competing interests.

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