Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and stroke account for about two-thirds of deaths in people with diabetes.
People with diabetes have a 2- to 4-fold increased risk of CVD and are up to 3 times more likely to die after MI than people without diabetes.
Regular exercise training, individual dietary modification, and smoking cessation or non-initiation are important lifestyle changes for the primary prevention of CVD.
Aggressive treatment of hypertension, use of statins, preventive anticoagulation, and coronary revascularisation (percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery during episodes of acute coronary syndrome) can lead to improved survival.
Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases, characterised by hyperglycaemia, resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The chronic hyperglycaemia of diabetes is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of various organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels.  Diabetes is an established major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease, including coronary artery disease (CAD), cerebrovascular disease (stroke or transient ischaemic attack [TIA]), and peripheral arterial disease. This monograph will discuss CAD in greatest detail.
Internal Medicine Resident
AM declares that he has no competing interests.
LD declares that she has no competing interests.
Division of Cardiology
Bluhm Cardiovascular Institute
Northwestern Memorial Hospital
Professor of Medicine
Feinberg School of Medicine
CD declares that he has no competing interests.
Dr Laura Davidson and Dr Charles Davidson would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Leonard E. Egede, the previous contributor to this monograph, and would like to gratefully acknowledge the review by Dr Shreenidhi Venuraju, MB BS, MRCP, Wellington Hospital South, UK. LEE is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph. SV not disclosed.
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