Last reviewed: 22 May 2021
Last updated: 10 Mar 2021

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Alcoholic liver disease
  • Choledocholithiasis
  • Hepatitis A
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C
  • Drug-induced liver injury
  • Ascending cholangitis
  • Pancreatic carcinoma
  • Liver metastases
  • Haemolytic anaemia
  • Decompensated cirrhosis
  • Acute liver failure
  • Acute-on-chronic liver failure

Uncommon

  • Gilbert's syndrome
  • Hepatitis E
  • Hepatitis D
  • Leptospirosis
  • Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) cholangiopathy
  • Cholangiocarcinoma
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)
  • Post-operative stricture
  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis
  • Primary biliary cholangitis
  • Wilson's disease
  • Hereditary haemochromatosis
  • Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency
  • Parasitic infections
  • AIDS cholangiopathy
  • Heart failure

Contributors

Consultant Hepatologist

University Hospital Southampton

Southampton

UK

Disclosures

JP declares that she has no competing interests.

Hepatology Specialist Registrar

University Hospital Southampton

Southampton

UK

Disclosures

AS declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Janisha Patel and Dr Alex Smith would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Rene Ramnarace, Dr Harry R. Dalton, Dr Peter Draganov, and Dr Grant F. Hutchins, previous contributors to this topic.

Disclosures

RR, HRD, PD, and GFH declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewersVIEW ALL

Associate Professor of Surgery

Division of General Pediatric Surgery; Director of the Trauma Program

Children's Hospital

Los Angeles

CA

Disclosures

JSU declares that he has no competing interests.

Consultant

Laparoscopic Upper Gastrointestinal Surgeon

Derriford Hospital

Plymouth

UK

Disclosures

GS declares that he has no competing interests.

Professor of Medicine

Division of Liver Diseases

Mount Sinai Hospital

New York

NY

Disclosures

JA declares that he has no competing interests.

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