Jaundice (icterus) is the result of accumulation of bilirubin in the bloodstream and subsequent deposition in the skin, sclera, and mucous membranes. The normal range for total bilirubin is 3.4 to 20 micromol/L (0.2-1.2 mg/dL). Jaundice may not be clinically evident until serum levels exceed 51 micromol/L (3 mg/dL).
The underlying aetiology of jaundice may be quite difficult to discern. A pointed history and physical examination is of utmost importance. By using this approach, an accurate diagnosis is possible in approximately 85% of patients. 
Consultant Gastroenterologist and Associate Lecturer in Medicine
University of the West Indies
Department of Medicine
San Fernando General Hospital
RR declares that he has no competing interests.
Dr Rene Ramnarace would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Harry R. Dalton, Dr Peter Draganov, and Dr Grant F. Hutchins, previous contributors to this monograph. HRD, PD and GFH declare that they have no competing interests.
Associate Professor of Surgery
Division of General Pediatric Surgery; Director of the Trauma Program
JSU declares that he has no competing interests.
Laparoscopic Upper Gastrointestinal Surgeon
GS declares that he has no competing interests.
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