Last reviewed: 2 Jul 2021
Last updated: 08 Apr 2021

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • present since birth
  • bulge at the umbilicus
  • change in size/tension during movement
  • skin changes
  • easily reducible hernial sac
  • well-defined rim of fascia with central defect
  • variable diameter of defect
  • symptoms of small bowel obstruction

Risk factors

  • low birth weight
  • African/African-American ancestry
  • Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS)
  • trisomy 21, 18, 13
  • congenital hypothyroidism
  • mucopolysaccharidoses

Diagnostic investigations

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors

Charles L. Snyder, MD

Professor of Surgery

Chief, Section of Surgery

University of Missouri-Kansas City

Children's Mercy Hospital

Kansas City

MO

USA

Disclosures

CLS declares that he has no competing interests.

Charles M. Leys, MD, MSCI

Associate Professor of Surgery

University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health

American Family Children's Hospital

Madison

WI

USA

Disclosures

CML declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

Michael A. Skinner, MD

Professor and Vice Chairman

Pediatric Surgery

University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center

Dallas

TX

USA

Disclosures

MAS declares that he has no competing interests.

Bangalore S. Ramanand, MS, DNB, FRCS, MSC

Locum Consultant Surgeon

Glan Clwyd Hospital

Rhyl

UK

Disclosures

BSR declares that he has no competing interests.

LS Wong, MB ChB

Consultant Surgeon

Honorary Associate

Professor of Surgery

University Hospitals Coventry

UK

Disclosures

LSW declares that he has no competing interests.

Emmanuel Atta Agaba, MD, FRCS, FACS

Fellow in Minimally Invasive Surgery

Montefiore Medical Center at Albert Einstein College of Medicine

Bronx, New York City

NY

USA

Disclosures

EAA declares that he has no competing interests.

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