Last reviewed: 28 Sep 2020
Last updated: 15 May 2020

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • otalgia
  • preceding upper respiratory symptoms
  • bulging tympanic membrane
  • myringitis

Other diagnostic factors

  • irritability
  • sleep disturbance
  • fever
  • decreased appetite

Risk factors

  • day care attendance
  • older siblings
  • young age
  • family history
  • Native American or Native Alaskan
  • male sex
  • absence of breastfeeding
  • supine feedings (bottle propping)
  • dummy use
  • environmental tobacco smoke
  • lower socioeconomic status
  • craniofacial anomaly
  • immunological deficiency

Diagnostic investigations

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Pediatric Associates of Charlottesville PLC

Assistant Clinical Professor of Pediatrics

University of Virginia Health System

Charlottesville

VA

Disclosures

CEA is an author of a reference cited in this topic.

Dr Carlos E. Armengol would like to gratefully acknowledge the late Professor J. Owen Hendley, a previous contributor to this topic.

Disclosures

JOH declared that he had no competing interests.

Peer reviewersVIEW ALL

Chief

ENT Department

Istanbul Training and Research Hospital

Istanbul

Turkey

Disclosures

OY declares that he has no competing interests.

Retired Consultant Paediatric Otolaryngologist

Formerly at Sheffield Children's Hospital

Sheffield

UK

Disclosures

PB declares that he has no competing interests.

Clinical Professor of Pediatrics

Georgetown University and George Washington University School of Medicine

Professor of Pediatrics

Medical College of Virginia

Clinical Professor

University of Virginia Medical College

Charlottesville

VA

Disclosures

At the time of the peer review, RS declared no competing interests. We have been informed that Dr Schwartz is now deceased.

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