Last reviewed:November 2019
Last updated:December  2018

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • target lesions of the extremities
  • recurrent disease
  • mucosal erosions

Other diagnostic factors

  • targetoid lesions
  • rapid onset of lesions
  • self-limiting course
  • clustered vesicles on an erythematous base
  • rhonchi, rales, and/or wheezes
  • red tympanic membranes
  • hepatomegaly

Risk factors

  • prior occurrence
  • herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection
  • cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection
  • mycoplasma pneumonia
  • hepatitis B virus infection
  • histoplasmosis
  • HIV infection
  • lymphoma
  • orf virus infection
  • medications
  • tattoos
  • hepatitis B vaccine
  • syphilis

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • FBC
  • serum electrolytes
  • herpes simplex virus (HSV) serology
  • rapid PCR
  • cold-haemagglutination serology
  • M pneumoniae titres
  • CXR
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • haematoxylin and eosin biopsy
  • immunofluorescence biopsy
  • hepatitis B virus (HBV) serology
  • LFTs
Full details

Emerging tests

  • anti-desmoplakin antibodies
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Adjunct Research Faculty

Arizona Burn Center

Maricopa Integrated Health Systems

Phoenix

AZ

Disclosures

AK-V declares that she has no competing interests.

Dr Areta Kowal-Vern would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Jonathan Silverberg and Dr Nanette Silverberg, the previous contributors to this topic. JS and NS declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewersVIEW ALL

Staff Physician

Cleveland Clinic

Cleveland

OH

Disclosures

CR declares that she has no competing interests.

Clinical Assistant Professor

University of Iowa College of Medicine

Iowa City

IA

Disclosures

BS declares that he has no competing interests.

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