Last reviewed: December 2018
Last updated: December  2017



History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • amenorrhoea or oligomenorrhoea
  • infertility
  • galactorrhoea
  • loss of sexual desire (libido)
  • erectile dysfunction
  • visual deterioration (e.g., temporal hemianopia)

Other diagnostic factors

  • osteoporosis
  • ophthalmoplegia
  • headaches

Risk factors

  • genetic predisposition (e.g., presence of mutation resulting in multiple endocrine neoplasia-1[MEN-1], familial isolated pituitary adenoma [FIPA])
  • oestrogen therapy
  • female gender, 20 to 50 years of age
  • male gender, 30 to 60 years of age

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • serum prolactin
  • pituitary MRI
  • computerised visual-field examination
Full details

Treatment algorithm


Authors VIEW ALL

Clinical Senior Lecturer in Endocrinology

Imperial Centre for Endocrinology

Department of Medicine

Imperial College London




NM declares that she has no competing interests.

Dr Niamh Martin would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Ilan Shimon, the previous contributor to this monograph. IS receives consultancy and lecturing fees from Pfizer, Israel. IS is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL


Division of Endocrinology

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine




MM is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph.

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