Last reviewed: 28 Sep 2021
Last updated: 17 Jul 2020

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Other diagnostic factors

  • nausea and vomiting
  • risk factors
  • right upper quadrant abdominal pain
  • jaundice
  • hepatomegaly
  • altered conscious level
  • asterixis
  • loin pain

Risk factors

  • history of self-harm
  • history of frequent or repeated use of medications for pain relief
  • glutathione deficiency
  • drugs that induce liver enzymes (cytochrome P450 inducers)

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • serum paracetamol concentration
  • liver function tests
  • prothrombin time and INR
  • blood glucose
  • urea, creatinine, and electrolytes
  • venous or arterial blood gas
  • full blood count

Investigations to consider

  • salicylate level
  • urinalysis
  • urine drug screen

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Expert advisers

Johann Grundlingh,

Emergency Medicine Consultant

Royal London Hospital

Barts Health NHS Trust

Honorary senior lecturer

Queen Mary University

London

UK

Disclosures

JG declares that he has no competing interests.

Clarissa Ribeiro,

Senior Clinical Fellow

Newham University Hospital

Barts Health NHS Trust

London

UK

Disclosures

CR declares that she has no competing interests.

Acknowledgements,

BMJ Best Practice would like to gratefully acknowledge the previous team of expert contributors, whose work has been retained in parts of the content:

Daniel K. Colby, MD

Assistant Professor

Department of Emergency Medicine

UC Davis Health

CA

Alastair Newton, MB ChB, FCEM

Consultant in Emergency Medicine

The Prince Charles Hospital

Brisbane

Australia

Disclosures

DKC and AN declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

Ruben Thanacoody,

Consultant Physician

Royal Victoria Infirmary

Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust

Honorary Clinical Senior Lecturer in Clinical Pharmacology

Newcastle University

Honorary Consultant Clinical Toxicologist

Public Health England

Director

National Poisons Information Service (Newcastle unit)

Newcastle upon Tyne

UK

Disclosures

RT was an investigator in the Scottish and Newcastle Antiemetic Pre-treatment for paracetamol poisoning (SNAP) study. RT declares that he has no other competing interests.

Editors

Annabel Sidwell,

Section Editor, BMJ Best Practice

Disclosures

AS declares that she has no competing interests.

Tannaz Aliabadi-Oglesby,

Lead Section Editor, BMJ Best Practice

Disclosures

TAO declares that she has no competing interests.

Rachel Wheeler,

Lead Section Editor, BMJ Best Practice

Disclosures

RW declares that she has no competing interests.

Susan Mayor,

Lead Section Editor, BMJ Best Practice

Disclosures

SM works as a freelance medical journalist and editor, video editorial director and presenter, and communications trainer. In this capacity, she has been paid, and continues to be paid, by a wide range of organisations for providing these skills on a professional basis. These include: NHS organisations, including the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, NHS Choices, NHS Kidney Care, and others; publishers and medical education companies, including the BMJ Group, the Lancet group, Medscape, and others; professional organisations, including the British Thoracic Oncology Group, the European Society for Medical Oncology, the National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death, and others; charities and patients’ organisations, including the Roy Castle Lung Cancer Foundation and others; pharmaceutical companies, including Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, Novartis, and others; and communications agencies, including Publicis, Red Healthcare and others. She has no stock options or shares in any pharmaceutical or healthcare companies; however, she invests in a personal pension, which may invest in these types of companies. She is managing director of Susan Mayor Limited, the company name under which she provides medical writing and communications services.

Julie Costello,

Comorbidities Editor, BMJ Best Practice

Disclosures

JC declares that she has no competing interests.

Adam Mitchell,

Drug Editor, BMJ Best Practice

Disclosures

AM declares that he has no competing interests.

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