Last reviewed: 28 Oct 2021
Last updated: 23 Jun 2021

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Cystitis
  • Urethritis
  • Pyelonephritis
  • Vulvovaginitis (including bacterial vaginosis)
  • Balanitis
  • Acute prostatitis
  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia
  • Urolithiasis
  • Local irritants

Uncommon

  • Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV)
  • Epididymo-orchitis
  • Cervicitis
  • Schistosomiasis
  • Tuberculosis
  • Urethral stricture/stenosis
  • Instrumentation or catheterisation
  • Sexual abuse
  • Athletics
  • Interstitial cystitis
  • Atrophic vaginitis
  • Spondyloarthropathies
  • Non-infectious prostatitis
  • Ketamine bladder
  • Urinary fistula
  • Prostate cancer
  • Bladder cancer
  • Renal cancer
  • Cervical cancer
  • Urethral cancer
  • Penile cancer
  • Drugs or herbs

Contributors

Authors

Kasra Saeb-Parsy, BSc, MBBS, AFHEA, FRCSEd (Urol)
Kasra Saeb-Parsy

Consultant Urologist

Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust

Cambridge

UK

Honorary Lecturer

Anglia Ruskin University

Cambridge

UK

Disclosures

KS-P declares that he has no competing interests.

Elaine Lee, MBBS, MA, FRCS (Urol)

Functional Urology Fellow

Eastern Health

Melbourne

Australia

Disclosures

EL declares that she has no competing interests.

Acknowledgements

Kasra Saeb-Parsy and Elaine Lee would like to acknowledge Dr Vincent J. Gnanapragasam, a previous contributor to this topic.

Disclosures

VJG declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

Robert Pickard, MD, FRCS (Urol)

Professor of Urology

Institute of Cellular Medicine

Newcastle University

Newcastle upon Tyne

UK

Disclosures

RP has received funding from the UK NHS (NIHR) to undertake commissioned reviews of treatment for benign prostatic enlargement.

George Martin, MD

Instructor

Department of Urology

Mayo Clinic

Scottsdale

AZ

Disclosures

GM declares that he has no competing interests.

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