Most commonly presents as an asymptomatic thyroid nodule detected by palpation or ultrasound in a woman in her 30s or 40s.
The most important diagnostic test is fine-needle aspiration.
Treatment is usually total thyroidectomy followed by radioactive iodine ablation and TSH suppression (papillary or follicular).
Treatment differs and must be tailored for uncommon types of thyroid cancer such as medullary, lymphoma, or anaplastic.
Prognosis depends on risk-group stratification.
Four types account for more than 98% of thyroid malignancies: papillary, follicular, anaplastic, and medullary. 
Department of Surgery
Division of Surgical Oncology
Division of Head and Neck Surgery
South Nassau Hospital
RD declares that he has no competing interests.
Professor of Surgery
Cornell University Medical College
Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
ARS declares that he has no competing interests.
Consultant Endocrine Surgeon
Hammersmith & Charing Cross Hospitals
Clinical Lead for Endocrine Surgery
Honorary Senior Lecturer
FFP declares that he has no competing interests.
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