Last reviewed: 28 Jun 2021
Last updated: 28 Jul 2021

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Other diagnostic factors

  • young age
  • weight loss
  • blurred vision
  • nausea and vomiting
  • abdominal pain
  • clinical dehydration
  • abdominal pain
  • tachypnoea
  • lethargy
  • coma or altered mental status

Risk factors

  • genetic predisposition
  • geographical region
  • infectious agents
  • dietary factors

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • random plasma glucose (children)
  • fasting plasma glucose (children)
  • 2-hour plasma glucose (children)
  • HbA1c (children)
  • clinical diagnosis (adults)

Investigations to consider

  • plasma or urine ketones
  • C-peptide
  • autoimmune markers

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors

Partha Kar, OBE, MBBS MD, FRCP

Consultant Endocrinologist

Portsmouth Hospitals University NHS Trust

National Specialty Advisor, Diabetes, NHS England

UK

Disclosures

PK has sat on advisory boards and attended events reimbursed by Novo Nordisk, Eli Lilly and Sanofi.

Sze May Ng, MBBS (Hons), FHEA, FRCPCH, SFFMLM, MSc, LLM, MBA, PhD

Honorary Associate Professor

University of Liverpool

Consultant Paediatrician and Paediatric Endocrinologist

Southport and Ormskirk NHS Trust

UK

Disclosures

SMN declares that she has no competing interests.

Eveleigh Nicholson, MBBS, FRCP

Consultant Endocrinologist

Portsmouth Hospitals University NHS Trust

UK

Disclosures

EN has received honoraria for educational activities/advisory boards from NovoNordisk, Eli Lilly and Boehringer Ingelheim.

Acknowledgements

Professor Partha Kar, Dr Sze May Ng, and Dr Eveleigh Nicholson would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Rajesh K. Garg and Dr Varsha Vimalananda, the previous contributors to this topic.

Disclosures

RKG is an author of a number of references cited in this topic. VV declares that she has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

Omar Mustafa, MBChB, FRCP

Consultant Physician in Diabetes

Senior Lecturer in Medical Education

King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust

King’s College London

London

UK

Disclosures

OM has received honoraria for educational activities/lectures from NovoNordisk, Eli Lilly, Sanofi, and Boehringer Ingelheim.

Hood Thabit, MB, BCh, MD, PhD

Consultant Diabetologist & Honorary Senior Lecturer

Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust

University of Manchester

Manchester

UK

Disclosures

HT has received research support from Dexcom, Inc., and speaker fees from Eli Lilly.

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