Last reviewed: 13 Apr 2021
Last updated: 27 Apr 2021

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Mild cognitive impairment (MCI)
  • Delirium
  • Depression
  • Alzheimer's dementia
  • Vascular dementia
  • Lewy body dementia

Uncommon

  • Amnestic syndromes
  • Aphasia
  • Frontotemporal dementia
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Huntington's disease
  • Brain tumours
  • Cushing's syndrome
  • Hypopituitarism
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism
  • Acute intermittent porphyria
  • Primary hypothyroidism
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Wilson's disease
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency
  • Traumatic brain injury
  • Lyme disease
  • Tuberculosis
  • Syphilis (late)
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Sjogren's syndrome
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Medication use
  • Toxin-induced
  • Normal pressure hydrocephalus
  • Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

Contributors

Associate Professor of Clinical Psychiatry

Yale University

New Haven

Disclosures

AG declares that she has no competing interests.

Dr Aarti Gupta would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Rajesh Tampi, Dr Sarper Taskiran, Dr Javier Lopez, and Dr Sunanda Muralee, the previous contributors to this topic. RT, ST, JL, and SM declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewersVIEW ALL

Associate Professor of Psychiatry

Yale School of Medicine

New Haven

CT

Disclosures

KW declares that she has no competing interests.

Director

Memory Disorders Program

Department of Neurology

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

NC

Disclosures

DK has received research support, speaking honoraria, and consulting fees from Eisai, Forest Laboratories, Johnson & Johnson, Medivation, Novartis, Ortho-McNeil, and Pfizer.

Professor Emeritus of Mental Health

University of Aberdeen Institute of Applied Health Sciences

Aberdeen

UK

Disclosures

LW declares that he has no competing interests.

Director

Cleveland Clinic Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health

Las Vegas

NV

Disclosures

RS declares that he has no competing interests.

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