Erythema migrans develops at the site of tick bite usually within 1 to 2 weeks and is a pathognomic feature of Lyme disease.
Constitutional symptoms such as fever, headache, myalgias, fatigue, and arthralgias may occur.
Complications of Lyme disease may be neurological, cardiac, or musculoskeletal.
Mainstay of treatment is antibiotic therapy.
There is currently no vaccine; prevention is centred around reducing exposure to ticks.
Lyme disease is a zoonotic infection caused by a spirochete of genus Borrelia, which is transmitted to humans by ticks. Zoonotic diseases are transmitted between vertebrate animals and humans. Animals serve as the primary reservoir of Borrelia. Ticks become infected by feeding on an infected animal. Most common initial manifestation is typical skin lesion known as erythema migrans. Later manifestations may include arthritis, or central nervous system or cardiac involvement.
History and exam
Professor of Medicine and Division Chief
Division of Infectious Diseases
Southern Illinois University School of Medicine
JK declares that he has no competing interests.
Janak Koirala would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Tin Han Htwe and Dr Cristian A. Speil, previous contributors to this topic. THH and CAS declare that they have no competing interests.
Professor of Medicine and Microbiology/Immunology
Chief of Allergy, Immunology and Rheumatology
New York Medical College
RJD declares that he has no competing interests.
Assistant Professor of Neurology and Neurosurgery
SUNY at Buffalo
Millard Fillmore Gates Hospital - Kaleida Stroke Center
IC declares that she has no competing interests.
Lecturer in Tropical Medicine
University College Dublin
Tropical Medical Bureau
GF declares that he has no competing interests.
Centre for Tick-Borne Diseases
AL is an author of a reference cited in this monograph.
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