Life-threatening neurological syndrome characterised by tonic muscle spasms and hyperreflexia.
Caused by the exotoxin of Clostridium tetani .
Prevention includes appropriate management of tetanus-prone wounds and complete active immunisation, with passive immunisation administered when required.
Diagnosis is based on clinical findings that include trismus, muscle rigidity, spasms, respiratory embarrassment, dysphagia, or autonomic dysfunction.
Management of clinical tetanus includes supportive care, wound debridement, antimicrobials, passive and active immunisation, control of muscle spasms, and management of autonomic dysfunction.
Tetanus is a life-threatening neurological syndrome characterised by tonic muscle spasms and hyperreflexia, caused by the exotoxin of Clostridium tetani , a gram-positive spore-forming obligate anaerobe.
Consultant in Infectious Diseases
Leeds University NHS Trust
St James’s Hospital
LEC declares that she has no competing interests.
Senior Lecturer (Honorary Consultant)
Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine and Royal Liverpool University Hospital
NJB is an author of several references cited in this monograph. NJB is partially supported by the National Institute of Health Research Health Protection Unit in Emerging and Zoonotic Infections at the University of Liverpool and Public Health England. He is affiliated with the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. Views expressed in this monograph are those of the contributor and do not necessarily represent the official position of the National Health Service, the National Institute for Health Research, the Department of Health, or Public Health England.
Professor in Paediatric Infection (Honorary Consultant)
University of Liverpool and Alder Hey Children’s NHS Foundation Trust
EDC declares that she has no competing interests.
Consultant in Medical Microbiology
Liverpool Clinical Laboratories
Royal Liverpool University Hospital
Honorary Clinical Research Fellow
Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine
CMP is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph.
Specialist in Musculoskeletal Medicine
UK (currently no institution)
LT is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph.
U.S. Public Health Service
HIV Vaccine Team
Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention
National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
KK declares that she has no competing interests.
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