Typically a self-limiting condition lasting <14 days. Frequent symptoms are nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea, which may be accompanied by fever, abdominal pain, and anorexia.
The most common cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide and is responsible for 80% of the gastroenteritis cases in the US.
Person-to-person transmission is responsible for infection in most sporadic cases. Foodborne and waterborne epidemic outbreaks have the potential to involve large numbers of people.
Mostly caused by norovirus.
Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhoea in young children. It also causes symptomatic infection in older people and in immunocompromised adults.
Diagnosis is usually made clinically. Although not routinely necessary, confirmation is by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), antigen-detecting enzyme immunoassays (EIAs), immunofluorescence assays (IFAs), microscopy, serology, and viral culture.
Optimal management is with oral rehydration therapy for mild and moderate cases and intravenous fluids for severe cases, plus adequate nutrition. Routine use of antibiotics, antidiarrhoeal agents, and anti-emetics is not recommended and may cause harm.
Prevention through good hygiene is the key to controlling viral gastroenteritis. In addition, rotavirus vaccines have been approved for infants.
Viral gastroenteritis is the acute inflammation of the lining of the stomach and intestines caused by enteropathogenic viruses. The typical presentation is an increased frequency of defecation lasting less than 14 days, which may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, anorexia, abdominal cramps, and fever. In rare cases, the volume depletion is significant enough to cause hospitalisation or even death.
History and exam
Associate Professor of Internal Medicine
University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine
KEB declares that she has no competing interests.
Dr Kyle E. Brown would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Easwaran Variyam, Dr Robert Schiller, Dr Srikrishna Nagri, and Dr Sury Anand, the previous contributors to this topic. EV, RS, SN, and SA declare that they have no competing interests.
Department of Infectious Diseases
Universidade Federal de São Paulo
ARM declares that he has no competing interests.
Infectious Disease Specialist
Alabama Infectious Diseases Center
AH declares that he has no competing interests.
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