Last reviewed: June 2018
Last updated: January  2018

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • fever (≥37.5°C)
  • flu-like symptoms
  • paraesthesias
  • hyperaesthesias
  • severe persistent headache
  • dizziness
  • ocular pain
  • gait disturbances
  • ataxia
  • diplopia
  • agitation
  • meningismus
  • muscle weakness (paresis)
  • persistent hiccups
  • dyspnoea
  • ascending or acute flaccid paralysis
  • vesicular lesions

Other diagnostic factors

  • nausea/vomiting
  • conjunctivitis
  • rash
  • lymphadenitis
  • lymphangitis
  • abdominal pain

Risk factors

  • occupational exposure
  • travel to countries with free-roaming macaques
  • keeping macaques as pets
  • exposure to non-macaque species that have been housed with macaques

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • viral culture
  • brain MRI
  • brain CT
  • CSF tests
  • EEG
  • brainstem auditory evoked responses
  • somatosensory evoked potentials
  • laboratory testing of animal specimen
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Leader

Herpesvirus Team

MMRHLB/DVD/NCIRD

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Atlanta

GA

Disclosures

DSS declares that he has no competing interests. The views included in this topic are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or the National Institutes of Health.

Chief, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases

Chief, Medical Virology Section

National Institutes of Health

Bethesda

MD

Disclosures

JIC is the author of a reference cited in this monograph. The views included in this topic are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or the National Institutes of Health.

Dr D. Scott Schmid and Dr Jeffrey I. Cohen would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Louisa E. Chapman, a previous contributor to this topic, and Dr Julia K. Hilliard for her contributions to this topic. Unfortunately, we have been made aware that Dr Louisa E. Chapman is now deceased.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Professor of Virology and Infectious Diseases

University of Liverpool

Liverpool

UK

Disclosures

AMG declares that she has no competing interests.

Assistant Professor of Neurology

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

Baltimore

MD

Disclosures

DS has received research funding from the National Institutes of Health, the World Federation of Neurology, and the Johns Hopkins Center for AIDS Research.

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer