Notifiable condition. Human-to-human transmission has not been demonstrated; however, standard precautions should still be implemented.
Majority of patients are asymptomatic; however, patients may have a mild, self-limited illness with fever and liver abnormalities. Approximately 8% to 10% of patients may have severe symptoms including ocular disease, encephalitis, or haemorrhagic fever.
Supportive therapy is the standard of care as there are no specific antiviral treatments.
A mild, usually self-limited infection caused by the Rift Valley fever virus (also known as RVFV). The virus belongs to the Bunyaviridae family (genus Phlebovirus). It is named after the Great Rift Valley in Kenya where it was first discovered in livestock in the early 1910s. It is transmitted to humans by contact with the blood, other bodily fluids (e.g., amniotic fluid), organs, or drinking raw milk from infected livestock or wild animals (most commonly cows, sheep, goats, or camels). Transmission also occurs via mosquito vectors including the Aedes and Culex species. The virus causes outbreaks of abortion and death of young livestock (most commonly sheep, goats, and cattle). Outbreaks in humans are often linked to those in animals (epizootic outbreaks).
History and exam
A. Desiree LaBeaud, MD, MS
Pediatric Infectious Diseases
Bechtel Faculty Scholar
Stanford Child Health Research Institute
ADL is the author of several references cited in this monograph.
Elysse N. Grossi-Soyster, MS
Laboratory Manager and Research Associate
Department of Pediatrics - Infectious Disease
Stanford University School of Medicine
ENG declares that she has no competing interests.
Anita K. McElroy, MD, PhD
AKM receives funding for RVFV-related research from Burroughs Wellcome, NIH, and Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta. AKM consults for Regeneron.
Tariq Ahmed Madani, MD, FRCPC
Section of Infectious Diseases and Infection Control & Environmental Health unit
Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Scientific Chair
Faculty of Medicine
King Abdulaziz University
TAM is the author of a reference cited in this monograph.
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